The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences
The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences provides college and university students with a highly accessible, curriculum-driven reference work, both in print and on-line, defining the major terms needed to achieve fluency in the social and behavioral sciences. Comprehensive and inclusive, its interdisciplinary scope covers such varied fields as anthropology, communication and media studies, criminal justice, economics, education, geography, human services, management, political science, psychology, and sociology. In addition, while not a discipline, methodology is at the core of these fields and thus receives due and equal consideration. At the same time we strive to be comprehensive and broad in scope, we recognize a need to be compact, accessible, and affordable. Thus the work is organized in A-to-Z fashion and kept to a ...
- Entries A-Z
Editorial Board[Page ii]Editor-in-Chief
Larry E. Sullivan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New YorkAssociate Editors
R. Burke Johnson, University of South Alabama
Cynthia Calkins Mercado, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Karen J. Terry, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Title Page[Page iii]
The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences
Copyright © 2009 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The SAGE glossary of the social and behavioral sciences/Larry E. Sullivan, editor-in-chief; associate editors, R. Burke Johnson, Cynthia Calkins Mercado, Karen J. Terry.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-1-4129-5143-2 (cloth)
1. Social sciences—Dictionaries. 2. Psychology—Dictionaries. I. Sullivan, Larry E.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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About the Editors[Page xxxi]Editor-in-Chief
Larry E. Sullivan is Associate Dean and Chief Librarian at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice and a professor of criminal justice in the doctoral program at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York. Prior to his appointment at John Jay in 1995, he was the chief of the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the U.S. Library of Congress, where he had responsibility for the nation's rare book collection. Previous appointments include Professor and Chief Librarian at Lehman College of the City University of New York, Librarian of the New-York Historical Society, and Head Librarian of the Maryland Historical Society. He became involved in the criminal justice system when he worked at the Maryland Penitentiary in Baltimore in the late 1970s. That experience prompted him to begin researching prison history and to write the book The Prison Reform Movement: Forlorn Hope (1990; revised edition, 2002). He also began collecting literature written by felons, and his private collection of convict literature has been on public exhibition at the Grolier Club in New York and at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He based his book Bandits and Bibles: Convict Literature in Nineteenth Century America (2003) on these prison writings. He is the author, coauthor, or editor of over 50 books and articles in the fields of American and European history, penology, criminal justice, art history, and other subjects, including the above books, Pioneers, Passionate Ladies, and Private Eyes: Dime Novels, Series Books, and Paperbacks (1996; with Lydia C. Schurman), and The New-York Historical Society: A Bicentennial History (2004). His three-volume Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement (Sage, 2005), of which he is editor-in chief, is the first such work that covers both the theory and the practice of policing and has been called unique by reviewers in its comprehensive coverage of worldwide law enforcement. His most recent publication is “‘Prison Is Dull Today’: Prison Libraries and the Irony of Pious Reading,”; which appeared in PMLA, the journal of the Modern Language Association of America, in 2008. Besides his many publications in journals, he has written entries in numerous reference publications over the years, including the Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States, Collier's Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia of New York State, Encyclopedia of the Prison, International Dictionary of Library Histories, Dictionary of Library Biography, Encyclopedia of Library History, Dictionary of Literary Biography, and the Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Future articles will appear in the International Dictionary of Creative Women. He serves or has served on a number of editorial boards, including the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, the Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice, and the journal Book History. He has delivered papers at meeting of the American Historical Association, the Modern Language Association, the American Society of Criminology, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, the Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing, and the American Library Association, among others. He has consulted on the development of criminal justice libraries and on rare book and manuscript collections. At John Jay, in addition to directing the largest and most comprehen sive criminal justice library in the world, he teaches grad uate and doctoral-level courses in advanced criminology and philosophy of punishment and conducts a seminar on philosophy of science for forensic science PhD and master's students. Works in progress include the books Theories of Punishment and Crime, Criminals, and Criminal Law in the Middle Ages for a series on medieval life and culture. He holds an MA and PhD in history from The Johns Hopkins University, an MS in library science from The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., and a BA from De Paul University in Chicago. He was also a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Poitiers in Poitiers, France, where he studied medieval history and literature.Associate Editors
R. Burke Johnson is a professor in the Department of Professional Studies at the University of South Alabama. He is first author of Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches, which is published in its 3rd edition (2008) by Sage. He is author or coauthor of numerous articles and chapters and has published in the Educational Researcher, Journal of Educational Psychology, Evaluation Review, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, and Evaluation and Program Planning. He is an associate editor with the Journal of Mixed Methods Research. He also was the guest editor of a special issue on mixed methods research in the journal Research in the Schools (the special issue is available online at http://www.msera.org/rits_131.htm). His current interests are in [Page xxxii]research methodology (especially mixed), the philosophy of social science, and social theory. He holds three mas ter's degrees (psychology, sociology, and public adminis tration). His PhD is from the REMS Program (Research Evaluation Measurement and Statistics) in the College of Education at the University of Georgia.
Cynthia Calkins Mercado, PhD, is an assistant pro fessor of psychology at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York. Her research broadly encompasses sex offenders, risk assessment, and sex-offender-specific legislation, including residence restrictions, community notification, and Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) statutes. She is also involved in a major study of the causes and context of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy. Broadly speaking, her work seeks to examine the empir ical assumptions underlying policy decisions in the area of sexual violence.
Karen Terry is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the director of the doctoral program in criminal justice at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York. Her primary area of research interest is in sexual victimization and sex offender supervision and management. Some recent publications include Sexual Offenses and Offenders: Theory, Practice and Policy (2005) and Sex Offender Registration and Community Notification: A “Megan's Law” Sourcebook (1998). She has been involved with numer ous research projects regarding sexual offenses and offenders. She was the principal investigator for a national study on the nature and scope of child sexual abuse in the Catholic Church from 1950 through 2002 and is currently the principal investigator for the study of the causes and context of that crisis. She is also the editor of the bimonthly Sex Offender Law Report. In addition to her research on sexual abuse, she has published books and articles in the field of policing and has received grants from the Department of Homeland Security to support the education of students in terrorism-related fields. She holds a doc torate in criminology from Cambridge University.
Valerie Allen, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Cemalettin Ayas Ohio State University
Paige Baggett, University of South Alabama
Gahan Bailey, University of South Alabama
Virginia Barber-Rioja, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
J. Jackson Barnette, Colorado School of Public Health
Elizabeth Bartels, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Abigail Baxter, University of South Alabama
Alexander Beaujean Baylor University
Michael Bender Tilburg University
Michael Blitz, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Hope Brasfield, University of South Alabama
Mary Michael Campbell University of South Alabama
Kristin Chong, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Jean N. Clark, University of South Alabama
Effie Papatzikou Cochran, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Kimberly A. Collica, Westchester County Jail and Penitentiary
K. M. T. Collins, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Kathleen Collins, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Roddrick Colvin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Julie P. Combs, Sam Houston State University
Chris L. S. Coryn, Western Michigan University
Maria Josephine D'Agostino John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Tarika Daftary, Graduate Center, City University of New York
Gayle V. Davidson-Shivers University of South Alabama
Peggy M. Delmas University of South Alabama
J.V. Dempsey, University of South Alabama
Ann C. Eckardt Hofstra University
[Page xxxiv]Patricia Eckardt Adelphi University
Nancy Egan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Matt J. Eliot, Univeristy of Washington
Diane Endall-Bruno, Graduate Center, City University of New York
Kristin Englander, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Marcia Esparza, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Yu Feng, Indiana Univeristy, Bloomington
Kathleen M. Fitzhenry Independent Scholar
Laureen A Fregeau University of South Alabama
Natasha A. Frost Northeastern University
Gennifer A. Furst William Paterson University
Sandy Gibson, Rutgers University School of Social Work
Lior Gideon, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Paula E. Gormley, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Robert M. Gray, University of South Alabama
Andre Green, University of South Alabama Dana Greene, New Mexico State University
Maria (Maki) Haberfeld, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Richard L. Hayes University of South Alabama
Dáñiellé D. Holt Loyola University Chicago
Yi-Min Huang University of Washington
Dawn Hurst, University of North Texas
Marjorie Icenogle University of South Alabama
Burke Johnson, University of South Alabama
Ursula Johnson University of North Texas
Brenda Gayle Juarez University of South Alabama
Wendi M. Kappers University of Central Florida
Barbara Bussell Kawulich University of West Georgia
Lila Kazemian, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Mansureh Kebritchi University of Central Florida
Ken Kelley, University of Notre Dame Kimora, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Bianca Klettke Deakin University
Kathryn Kloby Monmouth University
Louise Krasniewicz University of Pennsylvania
Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling University of South Alabama
Anne Elizabeth Lee Pratt Institute
[Page xxxv]N. L. Leech, University of Colorado, Denver
Robert D. Leier Auburn University
Miri Levin-Rozalis, Ben Gurion University of the Negev
Eric J. Loomis, University of South Alabama
Cristina Martinez Independent Scholar
Wes Martz Kadant Inc.
John Matteson, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Dabney Hunter McKenzie Troy University
Dee McKinney East Georgia College
Chuck McPherson University of South Alabama
Venezia Michalsen, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Vaughn S. Millner University of South Alabama
Dara Persis Murray Rutgers University
Jennifer Nabors University of Georgia
Susan Nordstrom University of Georgia
Patrick O'Hara, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
A. J. Onwuagbuzie, Sam Houston State University
Michael Quinn Patton, Organizational Development and Evaluation Consultant
Gianni Pirelli, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Ashley Powell, University of South Alabama
Carol Price, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Geoffrey Rab, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Kelly Rawls, University of South Alabama
Rosemary C. Reilly Concordia University
Thomas G. Reio, Florida International University
Jennifer Richards, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Clark Robenstine University of South Alabama
Elizabeth Romey University of South Alabama
Flora Rothman, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Kenneth Royal University of Kentucky
Marilyn Marks Rubin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Andrew Rudyk, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Meghan Reilly Sacks, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Vincenzo Sainato, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Iris M Saltiel Troy University
Susan Pitts Santoli University of South Alabama
Carsten Schmidtke, Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee Arts & Sciences
[Page xxxvi]Daniela C. Schroeter Western Michigan University
Ellen Sexton, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Eddie Shaw, University of South Alabama
Zachary Shemtob, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Diane Sivasubramaniam, Barnard College, Columbia University
Gary J. Skolits University of Tennessee
J. R. Slate, Sam Houston State University
Agnes Smith, University of South Alabama
Lloyd Soobrian Berkeley College
Andy Stanfield, University of South Alabama
Tori Steber, University of South Alabama Tres Stefurak, University of South Alabama
Alene Sullivan Ernst & Young
Larry E. Sullivan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Daniel W. Surry University of South Alabama
Olga Teploukhova, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Shirley Timmons Clemson University
Hasan Tinmaz Baskent University
Ellen Tufano, St. John's University
Karyn W. Tunks University of South Alabama
Lisa A. Turner, University of South Alabama
Jim van Haneghan University of South Alabama
April Vannini, European Graduate School
W. Paul Vogt, Illinois State University
Jeannette Waegemakers Schiff University of Calgary
Martin A. Wallenstein, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Christopher Ebun Warburton John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Lori Westmoreland University of South Alabama
Tom Clark Wilson, Chapman University
Marilyn Kay Wilson-McGowan University of South Alabama
Sue-Lin Wong, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Haci Bayram Yilmaz Ohio State University
Hsiu-Ting Yu Leiden University
Annmarie Zand Scholten University of Amsterdam
Sarah E Zappe Pennsylvania State University
Tina Zottoli, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
A glossary is a specialized dictionary that provides short, core definitions related to a specific discipline or lan guage. New disciplines develop their own language, jar gon, concepts, and terms that may not be familiar to any student or scholar coming to these various fields for the first time, and in fact the language of the social sciences may be unintelligible even to the intelligent layman. Many glossaries currently exist for discrete disciplines, but to compare how terminology is used in different fields of scholarly endeavor, the student must make an exhaustive search through many volumes to find even a simple comparison. The Sage Glossary is the first attempt to deal with this issue comprehensively and to combine and compare terminology in nine separate social and behavioral science disciplines: communication, econom ics, education, geography, media studies, political science, psychology, public administration, and sociol ogy. We have also added terms used in the methodology for social science research because we feel that these methods are integral to an understanding of all the dis ciplines included here.
When the social sciences became fashionable in the late 19th century, scholars followed the methods of the physical or natural sciences in the belief that their theoretical decisions or findings were “objective.” The social sciences closely follow the scientific method as far as they can, but they cannot verify, even falsify, in the same way as the physical sciences because they are dealing with human behavior in the past. Many of these methods and concepts were formulated in an attempt to first explain, and then predict, behavior. The entries on economics are prime examples of the use of statistical modeling to predict the behavior of financial markets. And anybody who reads the daily newspaper or watches the ubiquitous cable television news shows knows how predictable human behavior is. In the Sage Glossary, the student has one reference companion germane to all the disciplines, one that will place the development of concepts in their proper historical context and further the understanding of how these disciplines operate. Admittedly not all terms are included, but we wanted to keep the work to one volume as a convenient vade mecum, or a one-volume inclusive reference library. Therefore, we have made the entries shortfrom 50 to 425 words. The terms are organized in an A to Z fashion. In some cases, the terms have different definitions and applications according to which of the disciplines they represent. In these cases, we have listed multiple definitions and have indicated which disciplines correspond to each definition.
This is not an encyclopedia, nor is it intended to be so. Nor is it a dictionary with short, one-line entries. Our glossary falls in between the two, with enough content to lead the reader to understand the social sciences in comparative context and to stimulate further inquiry. The concepts in the social sciences have become so specialized over the years that we have attempted to follow Samuel Johnson's aim as stated in the preface to his great dictionary (published in 1755): “To interpret a language by itself is very difficult; many words cannot be explained by synonimes, because the idea signified by them has not more than one appellation; nor by paraphrase, because simple ideas cannot be described. … To explain, requires the use of terms less abstruse than that which is to be explained, and such terms cannot always be found; for as nothing can be proved but by supposing something intuitively known, and evident without proof, so nothing can be defined but by the use of words too plain to admit a definition” (p. 5). We have provided just such general explanations here, ones that can be understood by the intelligent reader, student, or academic coming to a discipline for the first time or who needs a refresher on the latest use of a term.
I had the vision for this Glossary when I reflected on the time I began my doctoral studies many years ago and turned to one of the great glossaries of the Latin language, the Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, compiled by Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange in 1678, to understand the medieval Latin of chronicles, charters, and other documents. Many of the Latin words used in the Middle Ages do not correspond with classical Latin or have variations of meaning from the Latin of Vergil and other writers from whom we learned our Latin in high school and college. Simply referred to as Ducange, this work in 10 volumes explains in good classical Latin how medieval Latin words differ considerably from their classical roots and how we could greatly misinterpret important primary source materials by relying on our knowledge of classical languages. Du Cange was one of the first glossators to study the historical development of languages, and his work is an indispensable guide to understanding the use of Latin in medieval documents and texts. When we had to turn to Old French, we had Jean Baptiste de La Curne de Sainte-Palaye, who in the [Page xxxviii]18th century produced the multivolume Glossaire de la langue frangaise. We must also mention that most medieval manuscripts used a sort of shorthand to facilitate scribal copying of texts. In the university cities of the Middle Ages, there was a robust market for textbooks, and scribes had to reproduce numerous copies to keep up with the demand. The first printers also, such as Gutenberg in his great bible of 1455, followed manuscript tradition and used similar Latin abbreviations. How was one to interpret these? For paleographical research, our handy guide was Adriano Capelli's Dizionario di abbreviature latine, or the Lexicon abbreviaturarum (1912), which explains which symbols signify missing letters in a written or printed work. Such scholarly compilations were products of Enlightenment thinking that attempted to sum up all knowledge in ambitious multivolume works or, as in Capelli, to show how to actually read earlier works. Most important, scholars couldn't advance in their intellectual pursuits without the use of such reliable reference tools.
The Enlightenment compilers and textual scholars were following an old tradition, by applying critical tools to the interpretation of words and concepts. We can go back many centuries to works such as Isidore of Seville's famous Etymologies of the early 7th century, which claimed to summarize all known knowledge, sometimes in fascinating and naive descriptions. Isidore's work in 20 volumes is a combination encyclopedia, glossary, and dictionary and inspired numerous medieval encyclopedias, such as the 9th-century De rerum naturis of Rabanus Maurus and the 13th-century Speculum naturale by Vincent of Beauvais. Most of these medieval works were compiled ipsa verba from classical and other sources and in many cases were compilations of excerpts from earlier works (sometimes even close to florilegia [anthologies or excerpts of other works on a theme]), with little substantiation of facts or sources and no critical analysis. These writers just built on the works of others. The early modern and Enlightenment scholars weighed sources, and editors and authors went at their work in the scientific manner then gaining ascendancy. In this sense, they checked historical usage and attempted to validate sources. We can just think of textual scholars such as the 15th-century Italian priest Lorenzo Valla, who exposed the Donation of Constantine, on which the medieval popes based their claims to temporal power, as a definitive forgery through linguistic proof of anachronistic Latin terms.
The coining of new terms in science and other disciplines follows the language usage model of early modern Europe, when scientists and academics such as Isaac Newton still wrote their books in Latin. Newton, in the Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (1687), and Jophannes Kepler, in his Astronomía nova (1609), had to describe phenomena with Latin words whose meanings were different from those in the Roman period or that didn't exist then. How was one to explain astronomical phenomena or the calculus in terms that weren't even thought of in the Roman era of good Ciceronian Latin? Since Latin was only spoken and written in ecclesiastical or intellectual quarters, explanatory scientific terms had to be improvised or created. Cultural additions were subjected to the same process, as they are today in many languages.
Our Glossary is all the more necessary for the comprehension of concepts because the social and behavioral sciences are relatively new disciplines and much of the jargon used in research and academia has taken on a variety of different meanings. If we look a bit at the history of these disciplines, we realize how recently academics organized associations devoted to the furtherance of their study. The American Economic Association dates only to 1885; the American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 and the American Anthropological Association in 1902; the American Sociological Association first gathered officially in 1905; communication scholars organized the National Communication Association in 1914 (under a different name); the American Society of Criminology broke away from the sociological associations in 1941; and the National Association of Schools of Public Administration only goes back to 1970. Therefore, it is time to recognize and codify the concepts and technical language used in these new disciplines in a succinct, concise, and, especially, comparative manner in order to provide a reference resource for the research universe of the social and behavioral sciences.
In writing and editing this book, we acknowledge how the Islamic terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, changed the way we look at the world, especially in social and behavioral science terms. Many of the authors of our entries thought no more than to state “9/11” without further explanation. This date is now an integral part of our culture, how we look at globalization, communication throughout cultures, sociological and criminological research, economicsin fact all the disciplines included in this book. Our assumptions of the world and its phenomena change along with the contextual change. The 20th-century philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein explained it best when he insisted that all our attempts to understand what we call facts will always be relative to the framework of a particular form of life, especially in the historical and cultural sense.
It is the importance of understanding the different uses, receptions, and interpretations of concepts that led me to work on this present Glossary, and I feel that it follows in the Enlightenment tradition of summarizing known knowledge of specialized conceptual usage in each discipline. One of the first glossaries in the English language, Thomas Blount's Glossographia of 1656, defined specialist words introduced into the English language from other languages and disciplines. Blount mentioned that he had problems understanding these new words and his Glossographia would smooth the way for others reading works in sciences such as geometry, mathematics, architecture, and others. Blount also provided etymologies of words, being one of the first to [Page xxxix]do this in English. We have attempted to follow a 21st-century version of this model.
The most difficult process in putting this book together was the selection of entries. We could argue at length on what should or should not be included in such a glossary, but we planned to have enough entries to make the work fairly comprehensive and inclusive, but not overwhelming, in one volume. I was fortunate in having superior associate editors and colleagues who helped compile the lists. I trust that we have kept the lacunae to a minimum and have provided references to even more specialized terms for further study.
I would like to thank the associate editorsBurke Johnson (education and research methods), Karen Terry (sociology and criminology), and Cynthia Mercado (psychology) for their thoroughness in carrying out their editorial duties. Meghan Sacks, my managing editor, was a constant source of support during every phase of this project. My assistants at John Jay, Elizabeth Clark-Wilson, Kristin Chong, and Kimberly Teets helped me wade through the arcana of online publication systems. Their assistance was invaluable in bringing this project to fruition. As always, I want to thank the librarians of John Jay College's Sealy Library for their continuing support and dedication to the pursuit of knowledge.