Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior


Edited by: Norman B. Anderson

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • [0-9]
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z

      • Loading...
    • Copyright

      View Copyright Page

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      Associate Editors

      Assessment and Treatment

      Jacqueline Dunbar-Jacob

      School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh

      Policy and Organizations

      Robert M. Kaplan

      Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego

      Epidemiology of Risk and Protective Factors

      Ichiro Kawachi

      Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health

      Biopsychosocial Interactions

      Margaret E. Kemeny

      Health Psychology Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco

      Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

      Shiriki K. Kumanyika

      University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

      Basic Processes, Theory, and Methodology

      Peter Salovey

      Department of Psychology, Yale University

      Senior Advisers

      Lisa F. Berkman

      Department of Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health

      Joel E. Dimsdale

      Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego

      William Gerin

      Integrative & Behavioral Cardiology Program, Zena & Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Sherman James

      Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University

      C. Tracy Orleans

      Senior Program Office, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

      Neil Schneiderman

      Department of Psychology, University of Miami


      Ana F. Abraido-Lanza

      Columbia University

      Dolores Acevedo-Garcia

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Nancy E. Adler

      University of California, San Francisco

      Gunnar Agren

      Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden

      Icek Ajzen

      University of Massachusetts–Amherst

      Carolyn M. Aldwin

      University of California, Davis

      Alex J. Allen III

      Isles, Inc.

      Gene G. Ano

      Bowling Green State University

      Benjamin C. Amick III

      University of Texas Health Science Center–Houston

      Paul A. Arbisi

      Minneapolis VA Medical Center and University of Minnesota

      Bruce A. Arnow

      Stanford University Medical Center

      Carlotta M. Arthur

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Audie A. Atienza

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Nancy E. Avis

      Wake Forest University School of Medicine

      Simon L. Bacon

      Duke University Medical Center

      Elizabeth A. Baker

      Saint Louis University School of Public Health

      Tamara A. Baker

      University of Michigan

      Albert Bandura

      Stanford University

      Oscar A. Barbarin

      University of North Carolina

      Paule Barbeau

      Medical College of Georgia

      John C. Barefoot

      Duke University Medical Center

      Orna Baron-Epel

      University of Haifa, Israel

      Andrew Baum

      University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute

      Aaron T. Beck

      Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research

      Adam B. Becker

      Tulane University

      S. Beth Bellman

      University of Iowa

      Gary G. Bennett

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Gerald S. Berenson

      Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

      Lisa F. Berkman

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Allan Best

      Centre for Clinical Epidemiology & Evaluation

      David R. Black

      Purdue University

      Edward B. Blanchard

      University at Albany

      Dan Blazer

      Duke University School of Medicine

      Carolyn L. Blue

      Purdue University

      James A. Blumenthal

      Duke University Medical Center

      Diane Bonfiglio

      Ohio State University

      Julienne Bower

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Stephen H. Boyle

      Duke University Medical Center

      Kelly D. Brownell

      Yale University

      Ross C. Brownson

      Saint Louis University School of Public Health

      Eric Brunner

      University College London

      David M. Burns

      University of California, San Diego

      James N. Butcher

      University of Minnesota

      Virginia S. Cain

      National Institutes of Health

      Michael P. Carey

      Syracuse University

      Edward G. Carr

      State University of New York at Stony Brook

      Olivia Carter-Pokras

      University of Maryland

      Charles S. Carver

      University of Miami

      Patricia P. Chang

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Steven J. Choi

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Noreen M. Clark

      University of Michigan School of Public Health

      Catherine Classen

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Lynn Clemow

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Sheldon Cohen

      Carnegie Mellon University

      Laura Coker

      Wake Forest University School of Medicine

      Graham A. Colditz

      Harvard Medical School

      Steve Cole

      University of California, Los Angeles

      R. Lorraine Collins

      University at Buffalo, State University of New York

      James W. Collins Jr.

      Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago

      Cynthia A. Conklin

      University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

      Tamlin Conner

      Boston College

      Jacqueline Corcoran

      Virginia Commonwealth University

      Jeffrey Cram

      Sierra Health Institute

      J. David Creswell

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Hank Dart

      University of Queensland

      Karina Davidson

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Mary C. Davis

      Arizona State University

      Alan M. Delamater

      University of Miami School of Medicine

      Barbara A. Dennison

      Bassett Healthcare

      Kurt H. Dermen

      University at Buffalo, State University of New York

      Ed Diener

      University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      Ana V. Diez Roux

      Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center

      Peggye Dilworth-Anderson

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Robin DiMatteo

      University of California, Riverside

      Angela Liegey Dougall

      University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute

      William W. Dressler

      University of Alabama

      Patricia M. Dubbert

      University of Mississippi School of Medicine

      Jacqueline Dunbar-Jacob

      University of Pittsburgh

      Christine Dunkel Schetter

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Christopher L. Edwards

      Duke University Medical Center

      John P. Elder

      San Diego State University

      Charles F. Emery

      Ohio State University

      Edward Emmett

      University of Pennsylvania Medical Center

      Judith A. Erlen

      University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing

      Gary W. Evans

      Cornell University

      Susan A. Everson-Rose

      Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center

      Craig K. Ewart

      Syracuse University

      Noha H. Farag

      University of California, San Diego

      Lisa Feldman Barrett

      Boston College

      Rebecca Fink

      Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

      Martin Fishbein

      University of Pennsylvania

      Ray Fitzpatrick

      University of Oxford

      Tanya R. Fitzpatrick

      Arizona State University West

      Brian R. Flay

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Susan Folkman

      University of California, San Francisco

      Cynthia Franklin

      University of Texas at Austin

      Barbara L. Fredrickson

      University of Michigan

      Robert R. Freedman

      Wayne State University SOM

      Michael Fries

      DePaul University

      Linda C. Gallo

      San Diego State University

      Kim M. Gans

      Brown University

      Marc Gellman

      University of Miami

      William Gerin

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Todd Gilmer

      University of California, San Diego

      Ronald Glaser

      Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health

      Thomas A. Glass

      Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

      Steven L. Gortmaker

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Carmen Reneé Green

      University of Michigan Medical School

      Lawrence W. Green

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Judith Green-McKenzie

      University of Pennsylvania Medical Center

      Sander Greenland

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Erik Groessl

      University of California, San Diego

      Carla J. Groom

      University of Texas at Austin

      Jessie C. Gruman

      Center for the Advancement of Health

      Brooks B. Gump

      State University of New York at Oswego

      J. Ricardo Guzman

      Community Health and Social Services Center, Inc.

      Mary Beth Harris

      New Mexico Highlands University

      Anthony Hedley

      University of Hong Kong

      Sarah H. Heil

      University of Vermont

      Stephen J. Heishman

      National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH

      Kathryn E. Henderson

      Yale University

      Robert A. Hiatt

      University of California, San Francisco

      Stephen T. Higgins

      University of Vermont

      Marcelle Christian Holmes

      Pomona College

      Kenneth A. Holroyd

      Ohio University, Athens

      Deborah Holtzman

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Frank B. Hu

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Joel W. Hughes

      Duke University Medical Center

      Mary Kay Hunt

      Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

      Shannon Q. Hurtz

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Bruce A. Huyser

      Albuquerque VAMC

      Esmeralda M. Iñiguez

      San Diego State University

      Carlos Iribarren

      Kaiser Permanente Division of Research

      Michael Irwin

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Barbara A. Israel

      University of Michigan

      Leonard A. Jason

      DePaul University

      Camara P. Jones

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Carolyn C. Johnson

      Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

      Randall S. Jorgensen

      Syracuse University

      Marjorie Kagawa-Singer

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Carolyn Phan Kao

      Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

      Robert M. Kaplan

      University of California, San Diego

      Ichiro Kawachi

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Robert M. Kelsey

      University of Tennessee Health Science Center

      Rebecca Kentor

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Mark W. Ketterer

      Henry Ford Hospital

      Deborah M. Khoshaba

      Pepperdine University

      Abby C. King

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Irving Kirsch

      University of Connecticut

      Willem J. Kop

      Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

      David Krantz

      Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

      Nancy Krieger

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Laura D. Kubzansky

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Sandra Larios

      San Diego State University

      Thomas M. Lasater

      Brown University

      Kristina Laskovski

      Bassett Healthcare

      Amy E. Latimer

      McMaster University

      I-Min Lee

      Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School

      E. Sue Lehman-Trzynka

      University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing

      Paul Lehrer

      UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

      Anthony Lembo

      Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

      Jane Leserman

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Susan Levenstein

      Aventino Medical Group, Rome, Italy

      Wolfgang Linden

      University of British Columbia

      Bruce G. Link

      Columbia University

      Shira Lipsky

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      William R. Lovallo

      University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

      Leslie Lytle

      University of Minnesota

      Salvatore R. Maddi

      University of California, Irvine

      G. Alan Marlatt

      University of Wisconsin

      Kathleen A. Martin

      McMaster University

      René Martin

      University of Iowa

      James A. McCubbin

      Clemson University

      Bruce McEwen

      Rockefeller University

      Angele McGrady

      Medical College of Ohio

      Monica McPhail-Pruitt

      University of Michigan Medical School

      Elizabeth L. McQuaid

      Rhode Island Hospital

      Mary Pat Mellors

      University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing

      Ronald Melzack

      McGill University

      Shawna L. Mercer

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Suzanne M. Miller

      Fox Chase Cancer Center

      Paul J. Mills

      University of California, San Diego

      David C. Mohr

      University of California, San Francisco

      Ali H. Mokdad

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Beth E. Molnar

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Miranda Montrone

      Fox Chase Cancer Center

      David G. Moriarty

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Judith Tedlie Moskowitz

      University of California, San Francisco

      Peter Muehrer

      National Institutes of Health

      Robert Murison

      University of Bergen, Norway

      Lynn B. Myers

      University College London

      Hector F. Myers

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Tonja R. Nansel

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

      Michelle Naughton

      Wake Forest University School of Medicine

      Toben F. Nelson

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Arthur M. Nezu

      Drexel University

      Christine Maguth Nezu

      Drexel University

      Julie K. Norem

      Wellesley College

      Judith K. Ockene

      University of Massachusetts Medical School

      Gbenga Ogedegbe

      Weill Medical College of Cornell University

      Akiko Okifuji

      University of Utah

      C. Tracy Orleans

      Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

      J. Bruce Overmier

      University of Minnesota

      David A. Padgett

      Ohio State University

      Ralph S. Paffenbarger Jr.

      Stanford University

      Sherry Pagoto

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Sara Palmer

      Johns Hopkins University

      Kenneth I. Pargament

      Bowling Green State University

      Crystal L. Park

      University of Connecticut

      Edith A. Parker

      University of Michigan

      Jerry C. Parker

      Truman VAMC

      Andrea Farkas Patenaude

      Harvard Medical School

      Thomas L. Patterson

      University of California, San Diego

      J. Gregory Payne

      Emerson College

      Lori Pbert

      University of Massachusetts Medical School

      James W. Pennebaker

      University of Texas at Austin

      Mary Ann Pentz

      University of Southern California

      Willo Pequegnat

      National Institutes of Health

      Maria Gabriela Pereira

      Cornell University

      Kenneth A. Perkins

      University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

      Daniel Perlman

      University of British Columbia

      Christopher Peterson

      University of Michigan

      Jo C. Phelan

      Columbia University

      Thomas G. Pickering

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Kate E. Pickett

      University of Chicago

      Sarah Pressman

      Carnegie Mellon University

      Rebecca Puhl

      Yale University

      Sandra Radin

      University of Wisconsin

      William Rakowski

      Brown University

      Kevin L. Rand

      University of Kansas, Lawrence

      Scott Ratzan

      Johnson and Johnson, Europe

      Rupa Redding-Lallinger

      University of North Carolina

      Eric C. Reheiser

      University of South Florida, Tampa

      Tracey A. Revenson

      Graduate Center of the City University of New York

      Christine M. Rini

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      J. Peter Rosenfeld

      Northwestern University

      Joseph S. Rossi

      University of Rhode Island

      Gabriella Rothman

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Rima E. Rudd

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Daniel W. Russell

      Iowa State University

      Catherine Tomeo Ryan

      Harvard School of Public Health

      James F. Sallis

      San Diego State University

      Lisa A. Pualani Sanchez-Johnsen

      University of Hawai'i at Manoa

      Jean J. Schensul

      Institute for Community Research

      Skye K. Schulte

      HealthGate Data Corp.

      Amy J. Schulz

      University of Michigan

      Amy R. Schwartz

      Yale University School of Medicine

      Christie Napa Scollon

      University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      Teresa Seeman

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Louise Sharpe

      University of Sydney, Australia

      Joan L. Shaver

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Kerry Sherman

      Fox Chase Cancer Center

      Andrew Sherwood

      Duke University Medical Center

      William J. Sieber

      University of California, San Diego

      Johannes Siegrist

      Heinrich-Heine University

      Edward G. Singleton

      Consulting psychologist

      Paula Smith

      University of Utah

      C. R. Snyder

      University of Kansas, Lawrence

      Glorian Sorensen

      Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

      Charles D. Spielberger

      University of South Florida, Tampa

      Bonnie Spring

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Gloria Stables

      National Cancer Institute

      Annette L. Stanton

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Robert A. Steer

      University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

      Carl J. Stepnowsky Jr.

      University of California, San Diego

      Andrew Steptoe

      University College London

      Catherine M. Stoney

      Ohio State University

      S. V. Subramanian

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Jerry Suls

      University of Iowa

      C. Barr Taylor

      Stanford Medical Center

      Julian F. Thayer

      National Institute on Aging

      Töres Theorell

      Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

      Robert Joseph Thompson Jr.

      Duke University

      Jonathan N. Tobin

      Clinical Directors Network, Inc.

      Susan Torres-Harding

      DePaul University

      Kimberlee J. Trudeau

      City University of New York Graduate Center

      Michele M. Tugade

      Boston College

      Dennis C. Turk

      University of Washington

      Sharon Williams Utz

      University of Virginia

      Melissa A. Valerio

      University of Michigan School of Public Health

      Peter A. Vanable

      Syracuse University

      Elizabeth Vásquez

      Helen Hayes Hospital Clinical Research Center

      Marja J. Verhoef

      University of Calgary

      Peter P. Vitaliano

      University of Washington

      Linda J. Waite

      University of Chicago

      Natalie Walders

      Rhode Island Hospital

      Shari R. Waldstein

      University of Maryland, Baltimore County

      Ken Wallston

      Vanderbilt University

      Sarah P. Wamala

      Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden

      Shirley S. Wang

      Yale University

      Nancy L. Weaver

      Saint Louis University

      Henry Wechsler

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Kellee White

      Columbia University

      Keith E. Whitfield

      Pennsylvania State University

      Adrienne A. Williams

      Duke University Medical Center

      David R. Williams

      University of Michigan

      Redford B. Williams

      Duke University Medical Center

      Sharon Wallace Williams

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Marilyn A. Winkleby

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Alistair Woodward

      Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago

      Alison Woolery

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Rosalind J. Wright

      Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School

      Eric V. Yang

      Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health

      Barbara Yee

      University of South Florida

      Heather Young

      University of Washington

      Ruth E. Zambrana

      University of Maryland

      Alex J. Zautra

      Arizona State University

      Tanya Zazula

      Clinical Directors Network, Inc.



      The field of health and behavior addresses the interaction of behavioral, psychological, emotional, social, cultural, and biological factors with physical health outcomes, such as heart disease, cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and chronic pain. The core philosophy of the field of health and behavior is threefold: (1) Behavioral, psychological, emotional, social, cultural, and biological factors are inextricably linked; (2) these factors together affect health; and (3) these factors can be used as avenues for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. Research and clinical practice in health and behavior are inherently multidisciplinary—that is, many disciplines contribute and no one discipline owns the field. Disciplines involved in health and behavior include psychology, epidemiology and public health, sociology, nursing, medicine, and anthropology, to name a few.

      The field of health and behavior research is vast and ranges from the scientific examination of basic behavioral and social processes to the evaluation of preventive and treatment approaches to policy analysis. It addresses such varied topics as pain management, cardiac rehabilitation, social aspects of genetic testing, anxiety and heart disease, prevention of HIV/AIDS, stress effects on the immune system, approaches to smoking cessation, chronic disease management, community interventions, and socioeconomic status and health.

      Health and behavior research has grown dramatically and has had increased visibility since the early 1980s. This growth is evidenced by a significant increase in the number of published scientific articles and books on the topic; the increase in funding for health and behavior research at federal and private funding agencies; and the appearance of health and behavior topics such as diet, exercise, smoking, and stress in popular publications and in electronic media. The growth, status, and potential of the field of health and behavior were recently affirmed by two landmark reports from the National Academies: the Institute of Medicine's Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences (2001, Washington, DC: National Academy Press) and the National Research Council's New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach (2001, Washington, DC: National Academy Press). The 1995 opening of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at NIH is another example of the growth of the field. The OBSSR works across all of the institutes and centers of NIH to advance health and behavior research and other relevant areas.

      Despite the tremendous growth and visibility of research on health and behavior, there existed no single reference source that captured the diversity and the multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary nature of the field and that was concise and accessible to lay audiences. The Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior was designed to be that reference source. The encyclopedia was designed to provide an introduction to the many topics in health and behavior for diverse audiences including undergraduate and graduate students in the behavioral and social sciences, medical students and those in the biomedical sciences, lay audiences (e.g., journalists, librarians, general public) seeking a nontechnical resource on health and behavior, and health scientists and practitioners who desire a quick reference source and introduction to areas outside their expertise.

      Organization and Themes

      The Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior is organized in an A–Z (alphabetical) format rather than by specific themes. In developing the topics that were to be included, however, the editors did rely on several different content areas or themes. These themes included, but were not limited to, the following:

      • Theories and methods in health and behavior (e.g., the theory of planned behavior, health belief model, and multilevel methods theory)
      • Biopsychosocial interactions and basic behavioral and social processes (e.g., behavioral genetics, psychoneuroimmunology, and cardiovascular reactivity)
      • Epidemiology of risk and protective factors (e.g., the relationship to health and illness of factors such as diet, bereavement, acculturation, social capital, anxiety, social support, and stress)
      • Health promotion and disease prevention (e.g., HIV/AIDS prevention, health promotion in schools, tailored communications, and church-based interventions)
      • Treatment and rehabilitation (e.g., behavioral and psychological treatment of diabetes, drug abuse, fibromyalgia, asthma, headaches, and pain; doctorpatient communication; motivational interviewing; and adherence)
      • Policy and organizational issues (e.g., health care costs and behavior, and health and behavior organizations)

      Within the encyclopedia, considerable use is made of cross-referencing. That is, at the end of many of the entries there is information to guide readers to other related entries or further reading.

      Editorial Process

      The editorial process began with the appointment of the six associate editors and six senior advisers. The members of these groups were selected because of their scientific leadership and vast knowledge of research on health and behavior. They also represented a number of disciplines, given the multidisciplinary nature of health and behavior. These individuals reviewed and revised a preliminary list of topics and potential headwords constructed by the editor in chief. The associate editors then selected Advisory Committee members, who also reviewed the preliminary topics and headword list and added potential titles. Many of these Advisory Committee members ultimately became contributing authors.

      From the revised headword list, the associate editors and the editor in chief then identified and invited contributing authors to write the entries. Once entries were written and submitted, the associate editors were responsible for reviewing and editing these manuscripts.

      Many of the associate editors also contributed entries themselves. Following the associate editors' review of the entries, they were submitted to the editor in chief for a final review.


      I am fortunate to have had the opportunity to serve as editor in chief for this very special and first-of-its-kind publication. I wish to thank the Harvard School of Public Health for providing the ideal intellectual setting in which to work on this project. The volume would not have been possible without the encouragement, support, and guidance of Jim Brace-Thompson of Sage Publications, who believed from the start that an encyclopedia of this type would make a substantial contribution to the public health literature. Jim's expertise in behavioral and social science publishing, and especially in putting together encyclopedias, made my job so much easier. I am indebted to my managing editors, initially Mary Riso, and later Karen Ehrmann. They handled nearly all of the day-to-day work on the volume, including helping to identify and contact possible contributing authors, answering their many questions, prompting them to complete their entries, and ensuring that I stayed on task.

      The associate editors cannot be thanked enough. These are all extraordinarily busy scientists and administrators who volunteered to spend a great deal of time on this project, when they could have been writing grant proposals or research papers. These people, because of their talent and expertise, are asked to do many things and are pulled in many directions. For them to take this on is a testament to their dedication to advancing the field of health and behavior. I will be forever grateful to them, as well as to our senior advisers and Advisory Committee members.

      Most important, I wish to thank the contributing authors. Like the associate editors, the contributing authors are scholars with much on their professional plates, and they could have easily turned down the offer to write an entry due to time constraints. But they too recognized that the production of the first encyclopedia devoted exclusively to health and behavior research, which would cut across all of the disciplines that compose it, was an important development for our field. This encyclopedia is the result of their incredible efforts and the research conducted by scores of scientists.

      Norman B.Anderson
      About the Editor

      Norman B. Anderson, PhD, is Chief Executive Officer and Executive Vice President of the American Psychological Association (APA). Trained as a scientist and a practitioner, Dr. Anderson has dedicated much of his professional life to studying the relationships between health and behavior, and health and race. At APA, his priorities include bringing psychology's broad expertise to health care, the public, and policy-makers and expanding the role of psychologists in our nation's health care system, the workplace, and education.

      Prior to joining APA, Dr. Anderson was Professor of Health and Social Behavior at the Harvard University School of Public Health, where his interests centered on health disparities and mass media approaches to public health. He is also widely known as the first Associate Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, and the first Director of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR). At NIH, he was charged with facilitating behavioral and social sciences research across all of the (then) 24 institutes and centers of the NIH. Under his purview was behavioral and social research in such areas as cancer, heart disease, mental health, diabetes, aging, and oral health.

      Prior to going to NIH, Dr. Anderson was Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychology: Social and Health Sciences at Duke University. There he studied the role of stress in the development of hypertension in African Americans and directed the NIH-funded Exploratory Center for Research on Health Promotion in Older Minorities. He received several awards for his research, including the 1986 New Investigator Award from the Society of Behavioral Medicine, the 1991 Award for Outstanding Contributions to Health Psychology from the APA, and a Research Scientist Development Award from the National Institute of Mental Health.

      Dr. Anderson is a Fellow of the APA, the American Psychological Society, the Society of Behavioral Medicine, and the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research, and he is a Past President of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. He has served as President of the Board of Directors for the STARBRIGHT Foundation of Los Angeles. He has also served on the Advisory Committee for Public Issues for the Advertising Council and chaired the National Academy of Science's Panel on the Future of Research on Race, Ethnicity, and Health in Later Life.

      Dr. Anderson has published widely in the field of health and behavior and is author or editor of several books, including Emotional Longevity: What Really Determines How Long You Live (2003).

    • Appendix A: Online Resources and Health and Behavior Organizations

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

      2101 E. Jefferson Street, Suite 501

      Rockville, MD 20852

      Telephone: 301-594-1364


      According to its Web site, the “mission of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research is to support, conduct, and disseminate research that improves access to care and the outcomes, quality, cost, and utilization of health care services. The research sponsored and conducted by the Agency provides better information that enables better decisions about health care” (in 1999, the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research changed its name to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AHRQ).

      Alan Guttmacher Institute

      120 Wall Street, 21st Floor

      New York, NY 10005

      Telephone: 212-248-1111


      The Alan Guttmacher Institute is a nonprofit organization focused on sexual and reproductive health research, policy analysis, and public education. The institute's mission is to protect the reproductive choices of all women and men in the United States and throughout the world. It is to support their ability to obtain the information and services needed to achieve their full human rights, safeguard their health, and exercise their individual responsibilities in regard to sexual behavior and relationships, reproduction, and family formation.

      Alzheimer's Association

      225 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 1700

      Chicago, IL 60601-7633

      Telephone: 312-335-8700


      The Alzheimer's Association, a national network of chapters, is the largest national voluntary health organization dedicated to advancing Alzheimer's research and helping those affected by the disease. Having awarded $136 million in research grants, the association ranks as the top private funder of research into the causes, treatments, and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. The association also provides education and support for people diagnosed with the condition, their families, and caregivers.

      American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

      3615 Wisconsin Avenue N.W.

      Washington, DC 20016-3007

      Telephone: 202-966-7300


      The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) is a membership-based organization, composed of more than 6,500 child and adolescent psychiatrists and other interested physicians. Its members actively research, evaluate, diagnose, and treat psychiatric disorders and pride themselves on giving direction to and responding quickly to new developments in addressing the health care needs of children and their families.

      American Academy of Nursing

      600 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Suite 100 West

      Washington, DC 20024-2571

      Telephone: 202-651-7238


      The American Academy of Nursing is constituted to potentiate the contributions of nursing leaders in transforming the health care system to optimize public well-being. This leadership is grounded in a global perspective, enriched by diversity, and actualized through partnerships with other health care and consumer groups.

      American Academy of Pediatrics

      141 Northwest Point Boulevard

      Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098

      Telephone: 847-434-4000


      The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and its member pediatricians dedicate their efforts and resources to the health, safety, and well-being of all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. The AAP has 57,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Latin America. Members include pediatricians, pediatric medical subspecialists, and pediatric surgical specialists. More than 41,000 members are board certified and are called Fellows of the American Academy of Pediatrics (FAAP).

      American Association of Colleges of Nursing

      One Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 530

      Washington, DC 20036

      Telephone: 202-463-6930


      The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) is the national voice for America's baccalaureateand higher-degree nursing education programs. AACN's educational, research, government advocacy, data collection, publications, and other programs work to establish quality standards for bachelor' sand graduate-degree nursing education, assist deans and directors to implement those standards, influence the nursing profession to improve health care, and promote public support of baccalaureate and graduate education, research, and practice in nursing.

      American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Psychologists and Social Workers

      75–20 Astoria Boulevard.

      Jackson Heights, NY 11370

      Telephone: 718-803-3782


      The American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Psychologists and Social Workers (AASCIPSW) is an organization of psychologists and social workers who provide for the emotional, behavioral, and psychosocial care of persons affected by spinal cord impairment (SCI). AASCIPSW, incorporated in 1986, operates exclusively for scientific, charitable, and educational purposes. AASCIPSW provides members the opportunity to develop and refine leadership skills through active participation in the association.

      American Association of Suicidology

      4201 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 408

      Washington, DC 20008

      Telephone: 202-237-2280


      The goal of the American Association of Suicidology (AAS) is to understand and prevent suicide. AAS promotes research, public awareness programs, public education, and training for professionals and volunteers. In addition, AAS serves as a national clearinghouse for information on suicide. The membership of AAS includes mental health and public health professionals, researchers, suicide prevention and crisis intervention centers, school districts, crisis center volunteers, survivors of suicide, and a variety of laypersons who have an interest in suicide prevention.

      American Cancer Society


      Telephone: 1-800-ACS-2345

      The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide, community-based voluntary health organization. With chartered divisions throughout the country and more than 3,400 local offices, the ACS is committed to fighting cancer through balanced programs of research, education, patient service, advocacy, and rehabilitation.

      American College of Preventive Medicine

      1307 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite 200

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-466-2044


      The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) is the national professional society for physicians committed to disease prevention and health promotion.

      American Counseling Association

      5999 Stevenson Avenue

      Alexandria, VA 22304

      Telephone: 1-800-347-6647


      The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a not-for-profit, professional and educational organization dedicated to the growth and enhancement of the counseling profession. Founded in 1952, ACA is the world's largest association exclusively representing professional counselors in various practice settings. ACA has been instrumental in setting professional and ethical standards for the counseling profession.

      American Diabetes Association National Center

      1701 North Beauregard Street

      Alexandria, VA 22311

      Telephone: 1-800-DIABETES (1-800-342-2383)


      The American Diabetes Association is the nation's leading nonprofit health organization providing diabetes research, information, and advocacy. The mission of the organization is to prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people affected by diabetes.

      American Heart Association National Center

      7272 Greenville Avenue

      Dallas, TX 75231

      Telephone: 1-800-AHA-USA-1 or 1-800-242-8721


      The American Heart Association is a national voluntary health agency whose mission is to reduce disability and death from cardiovascular diseases and stroke.

      American Institute of Stress

      124 Park Avenue

      Yonkers, NY 10703

      Telephone: 914-963-1200


      The American Institute of Stress is committed to developing a better understanding of how to tap into the vast innate potential that resides in each of us for preventing disease and promoting health.

      American Psychiatric Association

      1000 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1825

      Arlington, VA 22209-3901

      Telephone: 703-907-7300


      The American Psychiatric Association is a medical specialty society recognized worldwide. Its 37,000 U.S. and international member physicians work together to ensure humane care and effective treatment for all persons with mental disorders, including mental retardation and substance-related disorders. It is the voice and conscience of modern psychiatry. Its vision is a society that has available accessible quality psychiatric diagnosis and treatment.

      American Psychological Association

      750 First Street, N.E.

      Washington, DC 20002-4242

      Telephone: 1-800-374-2721 or 202-336-5500


      The American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional organization that represents psychology in the United States. With more than 155,000 members, APA is the largest association of psychologists worldwide. APA's initiatives include supporting psychology as a science, profession, and means to improve health and human welfare; educating the public and the media on the value of psychology; advocating in legislatures, educational settings, and major social institutions on behalf of the discipline and psychologists; and working to advance education and training in psychology from preschool to postdoctorate levels.

      American Psychological Society

      1010 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 1100

      Washington, DC 20005-4907

      Telephone: 202-783-2077


      The mission of the American Psychological Society (APS) is to promote, protect, and advance the interests of scientifically oriented psychology in research, application, teaching, and the improvement of human welfare. The APS is a nonprofit membership organization founded in 1988 to advance scientific psychology and its representation as a science on the national level. APS grew quickly, surpassing 5,000 members in its first 6 months. In 2003, APS membership exceeded 13,500 and includes the leading psychological scientists and academics, clinicians, researchers, teachers, and administrators.

      American Psychosocial Oncology Society

      2365 Hunters Way

      Charlottesville, VA 22911

      Telephone: 434-293-5350


      The mission of American Psychosocial Oncology Society is to promote the psychological, social, and physical well-being of patients with cancer and their families at all stages of disease and survivorship through clinical care, education, research, and advocacy.

      American Psychosomatic Society

      6728 Old McLean Village Drive

      McLean, VA 22101-3906

      Telephone: 703-556-9222


      The mission of the American Psychosomatic Society is to promote and advance the scientific understanding of the interrelationships among biological, psychological, social, and behavioral factors in human health and disease, and the integration of the fields of science that separately examine each, and to foster the application of this understanding in education and improved health care.

      American Public Health Association

      800 I Street, N.W.

      Washington, DC 20001

      Telephone: 202-777-2742


      The American Public Health Association (APHA) is the oldest and largest organization of public health professionals in the world, representing more than 50,000 members from over 50 occupations of public health. APHA brings together researchers, health service providers, administrators, teachers, and other health workers in a unique, multidisciplinary environment of professional exchange, study, and action. APHA is concerned with a broad set of issues affecting personal and environmental health, including federal and state funding for health programs, pollution control, programs and policies related to chronic and infectious diseases, a smoke-free society, and professional education in public health.

      American Social Health Association

      P.O. Box 13827

      Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

      Telephone: 919-361-8400


      The American Social Health Association is recognized by the public, patients, providers, and policymakers for developing and delivering accurate, medically reliable information about sexually transmitted diseases.

      American Society for Clinical Nutrition

      9650 Rockville Pike

      Bethesda, MD 20814-3998

      Telephone: 301-530-7110


      The American Society for Clinical Nutrition (ASCN) is the clinical division of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences. The goals and objectives of the ASCN are to encourage and implement undergraduate and graduate education in basic and clinical nutrition, particularly in medical schools; expand research and clinical training opportunities in nutrition science for health professionals; and provide opportunities for investigators to present and discuss current research in human nutrition.

      American Society for Nutritional Sciences

      9650 Rockville Pike, Suite 4500

      Bethesda, MD 20814

      Telephone: 301-530-7050


      The American Society for Nutritional Sciences is the premier research society dedicated to improving the quality of life through the science of nutrition.

      American Sociological Association

      1307 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite 700

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-383-9005


      The American Sociological Association (ASA) is a membership association dedicated to advancing sociology as a scientific discipline and profession serving the public good. With approximately 13,000 members, ASA encompasses sociologists who are faculty members at colleges and universities, researchers, practitioners, and students.

      Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

      10200 W. 44th Avenue, Suite 304

      Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-2840, USA

      Telephone: 303-422-8436


      The mission of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) is to advance the development, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge about applied psychophysiology and biofeedback to improve health and the quality of life through research, education, and practice. The goals of the association are to promote a new understanding of biofeedback and advance the methods used in this practice.

      Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy

      305 7th Avenue, 16th Floor

      New York, NY 10001

      Telephone: 212-647-1890


      The Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy (AABT) is a professional, interdisciplinary organization that is concerned with the application of behavioral and cognitive sciences to the understanding of human behavior, developing interventions to enhance the human condition, and promoting the appropriate utilization of these interventions. AABT is a not-for-profit membership organization of more than 4,500 mental health professionals and students who are interested in behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in order to gain a better understanding of human behavior; develop, assess, and apply interventions to assist in behavior change; help people deal with personal and social problems and issues; and further the empirical study, theory, and practice of these therapies.

      Association of Behavior Analysis

      1219 South Park Street

      Kalamazoo, MI 49001

      Telephone: 269-492-9310


      The mission of the Association of Behavior Analysis is to develop, enhance, and support the growth and vitality of behavioral analysis through research, education, and practice.

      Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education

      1101 15th Street, N.W., Suite 601

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-659-2230


      The Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education (ASTDHPPHE) was founded in 1946 (as the Conference of State Directors of Public Health Education) as a joint effort between directors of health education in state health departments and deans of health education in schools of public health. In 1994, the association changed its name to the Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education to better reflect the mission and roles of the membership in promoting health and preventing disease in states and communities.

      Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine

      1660 L Street, N.W., Suite 208

      Washington, DC 20036

      Telephone: 202-463-0550


      The Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine (ATPM) is the national association supporting health promotion and disease prevention educators and researchers. Since 1942, ATPM and its members have been in the forefront of advancing, promoting, and supporting health promotion and disease prevention in the education of physicians and other health professionals.

      Behavior OnLine http://www.behavior.net/about.html

      Behavior OnLine aspires to be the premier World Wide Web gathering place for mental health professionals and applied behavioral scientists—a place where professionals of every discipline can feel at home.

      Center for Behavioral Neuroscience http://www.cbn-atl.org

      The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience examines the neural mechanisms underlying the social behaviors that are essential for species survival, such as fear, affiliation, aggression, and reproductive behaviors.

      Center for Communication Programs

      Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

      111 Market Place, Suite 310

      Baltimore, MD 21202

      Telephone: 410-659-6300


      The Center for Communication Programs (CCP) works with international agencies, foundations, governments, and nongovernmental organizations in the United States and overseas to promote healthy behavior.

      The CCP's work focuses on the field of strategic, research-based communication for behavior change and health promotion that has helped transform the theory and practice of public health.

      Center for the Advancement of Health

      2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Suite 210

      Washington, DC 20009–1231

      Telephone: 202-387-2829


      The Center for the Advancement of Health promotes a view of health that recognizes that where we live, how we are educated, and what we eat, drink, breathe, and do affect health as much as, if not more than, access to health care. Its mission is to translate research on this expanded view of health into effective policy and practice.

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      1600 Clifton Road

      Atlanta, GA 30333

      Telephone: 404-639-3311


      The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is recognized as the lead federal agency for protecting the health and safety of people, at home and abroad, providing credible information to enhance health decisions and promoting health through strong partnerships. The CDC serves as the national focus for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States. The CDC's mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.

      College on Problems of Drug Dependence

      3420 N. Broad Street

      Philadelphia, PA 19140

      Telephone: 215-707-3242


      The College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD), formerly the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, has been in existence since 1929 and is the longest-standing group in the United States addressing problems of drug dependence and abuse. CPDD serves as an interface among government, industrial, and academic communities maintaining liaisons with regulatory and research agencies as well as educational, treatment, and prevention facilities in the drug abuse field. It also functions as a collaborating center of the World Health Organization.

      Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities

      4891 E. Grant Road

      Tucson, AZ 85712

      Telephone: 520-325-1044


      The Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF) is an independent, not-for-profit accrediting body promoting quality, value, and optimal outcomes of services through a consultative accreditation process that centers on enhancing the lives of the persons receiving services. Founded in 1966 as the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities, the accrediting body is now known as CARF. The mission of CARF is to promote the quality, value, and optimal outcomes of services through a consultative accreditation process that centers on enhancing the lives of the persons served.

      Consortium of Social Science Associations

      1522 K Street, N.W., Suite 836

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-842-3525


      The Consortium of Social Science Associations (COSSA) is an advocacy organization supported by more than 100 professional associations, scientific societies, universities, and research institutions. COSSA stands alone in representing the full range of social scientists. COSSA represents the needs and interests of social and behavioral scientists; educates federal officials about social and behavioral science; informs the science community about relevant federal policies; and cooperates with other science and education groups in pursuit of common goals. COSSA lobbies Congress and the Executive Branch on issues affecting the social science portfolios of the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Justice, and Labor, and many other federal agencies.

      Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology http://psych.wfu.edu/cogdop/

      The Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology (COGDOP) is a society constituted of chairs and heads of departments of psychology or other equivalent administrative units, which are authorized to offer graduate degrees in psychology in institutions accredited by their regional accrediting association. Membership is held by the department, not by the individual.

      Decade of Behavior

      750 First Street, N.E.

      Washington, DC 20002-4242

      Telephone: 202-336-6166


      The Decade of Behavior, launched in September 2000, is a multidisciplinary initiative to focus the talents, energy, and creativity of the behavioral and social sciences on meeting many of society's most significant challenges. These include improving education and health care; enhancing safety in homes and communities; actively addressing the needs of an aging population; and helping to curb drug abuse, crime, high-risk behaviors, poverty, racism, and cynicism toward government.

      Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences

      750 First Street, N.E.

      Washington, DC 20002

      Telephone: 202-336-5920


      The Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences is a dues-supported coalition of member organizations, university departments of psychology, schools of education, research centers, regional psychological associations, and science divisions of the American Psychological Association. The federation represents the interests of scientists who do research in the areas of behavioral, psychological, and cognitive sciences. The efforts of the federation are focused on legislative and regulatory advocacy, education, and the communication of information to scientists.

      Gerontological Society of America

      1030 15th Street, N.W., Suite 250

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-842-1275


      The Gerontological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit professional organization with more than 5,000 members in the field of aging. GSA provides researchers, educators, practitioners, and policymakers with opportunities to understand, advance, integrate, and use basic and applied research on aging to improve the quality of life as one ages.


      P.O. Box 1133

      Washington, DC 20013-1133


      Healthfinder is a guide to reliable health information from the Department of Health and Human Services. The guide includes a health library of hand-picked health information from A to Z—prevention and wellness, diseases and conditions, and alternative medicine—plus medical dictionaries, an encyclopedia, journals, and more.

      Health Psychology, Division 38 of the American Psychological Association

      750 First Street, N.E.

      Washington, DC 20002-4242

      Telephone: 202-336-6013


      Division 38 seeks to advance contributions of psychology to the understanding of health and illness through basic and clinical research, education, and service activities and encourages the integration of biomedical information about health and illness with current psychological knowledge. The division has a nursing and health group and special interest groups in aging, women, and minority health issues. The division publishes the bimonthly journal Health Psychology and the quarterly newsletter Health Psychologist. Division 38 offers a listing of training programs in health psychology and presents an annual student paper award.

      Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

      P.O. Box 1369

      Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369

      Telephone: 310-394-2410


      The mission of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society is to promote the discovery and exchange of knowledge concerning the characteristics of human beings that are applicable to the design of systems and devices of all kinds. The society was founded in 1957 as the Human Factors Society of America. Later, the name was changed to the Human Factors Society, Inc., to reflect its international influence and membership. In 1992, the name was changed to the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

      Institute for the Advancement of Human Behavior

      4370 Alpine Road, Suite 209

      Portola Valley, CA 94028

      Telephone: 1-800-258-8411


      The Institute for the Advancement of Human Behavior (IAHB) is a fully accredited sponsor of continuing education and continuing medical education for mental health, chemical dependency, and substance abuse treatment providers in the United States and Canada. IAHB's mission is to provide high-quality clinical training to health care professionals as well as to companies and individuals with health care-related interests.

      Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research

      750 First Street, N.E., Suite 700

      Washington, DC 20002-4241

      Telephone: 202-336-8385


      The Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research (IASWR) is a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit organization. IASWR works to improve the lives of vulnerable populations by advocating for the importance of research to strengthen the social work profession's capacity to address complex social needs, and to contribute to improved prevention and treatment interventions, services, and policies. The overarching, single mission of IASWR is to promote and strengthen research in the social work profession.

      Institute of Medicine The National Academies

      500 Fifth Street, N.W.

      Washington, DC 20001

      Telephone: 202-334-2138


      The mission of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is to advance and disseminate scientific knowledge to improve human health. The institute provides objective, timely, authoritative information and advice concerning health and science policy to government, the corporate sector, the professions, and the public. IOM is part of the National Academy of Sciences organizations and does not receive direct federal appropriations for its work. The National Academy of Sciences was created by the federal government to be an adviser on scientific and technological matters.

      Intercultural Cancer Council

      6655 Travis, Suite 322

      Houston, TX 77030-1312

      Telephone: 713-798-4617


      The Intercultural Cancer Council (ICC) promotes policies, programs, partnerships, and research to eliminate the unequal burden of cancer among racial and ethnic minorities and medically underserved populations in the United States and its associated territories.

      International Psycho-Oncology Society

      2365 Hunters Way

      Charlottesville, VA 22911

      Telephone: 434-971-4788


      The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) was created to foster international multidisciplinary communication about clinical, educational, and research issues that relate to the subspecialty of psycho-oncology. The society seeks to provide leadership and development of standards for educational training and research in the two psychosocial dimensions of cancer: the response of patients, families, and staff to cancer and its treatment at all stages, and the psychological, social, and behavioral factors that influence tumor progression and survival. It has boundaries with all clinical oncologic specialties, epidemiology and cancer control, basic sciences, bioethics, palliative care, rehabilitation, clinical trials, and decision making.

      International Social Science Council UNESCO House

      1, rue Miollis

      75732 Paris Cedex 15, France


      The International Social Science Council (ISSC) is an international nonprofit scientific organization with its headquarters in UNESCO House in Paris. The ISSC has as its aims and objectives the promotion of the understanding of human society in its environment by fostering the social and behavioral sciences throughout the world and their application to major contemporary problems and by enhancing cooperation by means of a global international organization of social and behavioral scientists and social and behavioral science organizations, encouraging multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary cooperation among the members of the ISSC.

      International Society for Developmental Psychobiology


      The purposes of the International Society for Developmental Psychobiology are to (a) promote and encourage research on the development of behavior in all organisms including humans, with special attention to the effects of biological factors operating at any level of organization; (b) facilitate communication of research results and theory in the area of developmental psychobiology through the use of both professional and popular printed media and through the presentation of papers at meetings of the society; and (c) foster application of the valid findings of research to human affairs in a way beneficial to humankind.

      International Society of Behavioral Medicine


      The International Society of Behavioral Medicine (ISBM) is a federation of national societies whose goal is to serve the needs of all health-related disciplines concerned with issues relevant to behavioral medicine. Each national society includes both biomedical and behavioral scientists.



      MEDLINEplus is a Web site with authoritative consumer health information from the National Institutes of Health and others.



      MEDLINE/PubMed is a database with references, primarily from MEDLINE, to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on articles in the biomedical field.

      The Metanexus Institute

      3624 Market Street, Suite 301

      Philadelphia, PA 19104

      Telephone: 215-789-2200


      The Metanexus Institute advances research, education, and outreach on the constructive engagement of science and religion. It seeks to create an enduring intellectual and social movement by collaborating with persons and communities from diverse religious traditions and scientific disciplines.

      National Academy of Neuropsychology

      2121 South Oneida Street, Suite 550

      Denver, CO 80224–2594

      Telephone: 303-691–3694


      The National Academy of Neuropsychology is a professional society that includes clinicians, scientist practitioners, and researchers interested in neuropsychology.

      National Academy of Sciences

      500 Fifth Street, N.W.

      Washington, DC 20001

      Telephone: 202-334-2000


      The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. The academy is governed by a council composed of 12 members (councilors) and five officers, elected from among the academy membership. The council is responsible to the membership for the activities undertaken by the organization and for the corporate management of the National Academy of Sciences, a corporation created by act of Congress that also includes the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and the National Research Council (NRC). Collectively, these organizations are called the National Academies.

      National Cancer Institute

      6116 Executive Boulevard, MSC 8322

      Bethesda, MD 20892-8322

      Telephone: 1-800-422-6237


      The National Cancer Institute (NCI) leads a national effort to reduce the burden of cancer morbidity and mortality. Its goal is to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, NCI conducts and supports programs to understand the causes of cancer; prevent, detect, diagnose, treat, and control cancer; and disseminate information to the practitioner, patient, and public.

      National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      Telephone: 1-888-644-6226


      The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is dedicated to exploring complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices in the context of rigorous science, training CAM researchers, and disseminating authoritative information.

      National Center for Research Resources

      One Democracy Plaza, Room 984

      6701 Democracy Boulevard, MSC 4874

      Bethesda, MD 20892-4874

      Telephone: 301-435-0888


      The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) advances biomedical research and improves human health through research projects and shared resources that create, develop, and provide a comprehensive range of human, animal, technological, and other resources. NCRR's support is concentrated in four areas: biomedical technology, clinical research, comparative medicine, and research infrastructure.

      National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities

      6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, MSC 5465

      Bethesda, MD 20892-5465

      Telephone: 301-402-1366


      The mission of the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) is to promote minority health and to lead, coordinate, support, and assess the National Institutes of Health effort to reduce and ultimately eliminate health disparities. In this effort, NCMHD will conduct and support basic, clinical, social, and behavioral research; promote research infrastructure and training; foster emerging programs; disseminate information; and reach out to minority and other health disparity communities.

      National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      Telephone: 301-592-8573


      The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) provides leadership for a national program in diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and sleep disorders. NHLBI plans, conducts, fosters, and supports an integrated and coordinated program of basic research, clinical investigations and trials, observational studies, and demonstration and education projects.

      National Human Genome Research Institute


      The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) supports the National Institutes of Health component of the Human Genome Project, a worldwide research effort designed to analyze the structure of human DNA and determine the location of the estimated 30,000 to 40,000 human genes.

      National League for Nursing

      61 Broadway

      New York, NY 10006

      Telephone: 1-800-669-1656 or 212-363-5555


      The National League for Nursing advances quality nursing education that prepares the nursing workforce to meet the needs of diverse populations in an ever-changing health care environment.

      National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

      Building 31, Room 7A-50, MSC 2520

      31 Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892-2520


      National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) research strives to understand, treat, and ultimately prevent the myriad infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases that threaten millions of human lives.

      National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

      1 AMS Circle

      Bethesda, MD 20892-3675

      Telephone: 301-495-4484


      The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases, the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research, and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases.

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

      Building 31, Room 2A32, MSC 2425

      31 Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892-2425


      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) research on fertility, pregnancy, growth, development, and medical rehabilitation strives to ensure that every child is born healthy and wanted and grows up free from disease and disability.

      National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

      Bethesda, MD 20892-2190

      Telephone: 301-496-4261


      The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) provides leadership for a national research program designed to understand, treat, and ultimately prevent the infectious and inherited craniofacial-oral-dental diseases and disorders that compromise millions of human lives.

      National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

      Building 31, Room 9A04, MSC 2560

      Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892


      The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) conducts and supports basic and applied research and provides leadership for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. Several of these diseases are among the leading causes of disability and death; all seriously affect the quality of life of those who have them.

      National Institutes of Health

      9000 Rockville Pike

      Bethesda, MD 20892


      The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the United States. Its mission is science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability. The goals of the agency are as follows: (1) foster fundamental creative discoveries, innovative research strategies, and their applications as a basis to advance significantly the nation's capacity to protect and improve health; (2) develop, maintain, and renew scientific human and physical resources that will assure the nation's capability to prevent disease; (3) expand the knowledge base in medical and associated sciences in order to enhance the nation's economic well-being and ensure a continued high return on the public investment in research; and (4) exemplify and promote the highest level of scientific integrity, public accountability, and social responsibility in the conduct of science.

      National Institute of Mental Health

      6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 8184, MSC 9663

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      Telephone: 301-443-4513


      The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) provides national leadership dedicated to understanding, treating, and preventing mental illnesses through basic research on the brain and behavior, and through clinical, epidemiological, and services research.

      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

      P.O. Box 5801

      Bethesda, MD 20824

      Telephone: 1-800-352-9424


      The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to reduce the burden of neurological diseases—a burden borne by every age group, every segment of society, and people all over the world. To accomplish this goal, the NINDS supports and conducts research, both basic and clinical, on the normal and diseased nervous system, fosters the training of investigators in the basic and clinical neurosciences, and seeks better understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of neurological disorders.

      National Institute of Nursing Research


      The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) supports clinical and basic research to establish a scientific basis for the care of individuals across the life span—from the management of patients during illness and recovery to the reduction of risks for disease and disability; the promotion of healthy lifestyles; the promotion of quality of life in those with chronic illness; and the care for individuals at the end of life. This research may also include families within a community context, and it also focuses on the special needs of at-risk and underserved populations, with an emphasis on health disparities.

      National Institute on Aging

      Building 31, Room 5C27, MSC 2292

      31 Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      Telephone: 301-496-1752


      The National Institute on Aging (NIA) leads a national program of research on the biomedical, social, and behavioral aspects of the aging process; the prevention of age-related diseases and disabilities; and the promotion of a better quality of life for all older Americans.

      National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

      6000 Executive Boulevard, Willco Building

      Bethesda, MD 20892-7003


      The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the enormous health, social, and economic consequences of this disease.

      National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

      MSC 2320

      31 Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892-2320


      The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) conducts and supports biomedical research and research training on normal mechanisms as well as diseases and disorders of hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language that affect 46 million Americans.

      National Institute on Drug Abuse


      The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) leads the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction through support and conduct of research across a broad range of disciplines and rapid and effective dissemination of results of that research to improve drug abuse and addiction prevention, treatment, and policy.

      National Library of Medicine

      8600 Rockville Pike

      Bethesda, MD 20894


      The National Library of Medicine (NLM) collects, organizes, and makes available biomedical science information to investigators, educators, and practitioners and carries out programs designed to strengthen medical library services in the United States. Both health professionals and the public use its electronic databases, including MEDLINE and MEDLINEplus, extensively throughout the world.

      National Science Foundation

      4201 Wilson Boulevard

      Arlington, VA 22230

      Telephone: 703-292-5111


      The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the U.S. government. The NSF's mission is to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense.

      Neurobehavioral Teratology Society


      The purpose of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society (NBTS) is to understand the behavioral and developmental alterations that result from genetic and environmental perturbations of the nervous system during the preand perinatal period. NBTS is also focused on communicating such findings to physicians, scientists, public health officials, and the general public to promote awareness and lessen the risks for teratologic occurrences in the population at large. NBTS also has a special focus of educating scientists in the appropriate methodology for conducting teratologic research.

      Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research


      The Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) mission is to stimulate behavioral and social sciences research throughout the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and to integrate these areas of research more fully into others of the NIH health research enterprise, thereby improving our understanding, treatment, and prevention of disease.

      Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

      200 Independence Avenue S.W., Room 738G

      Washington, DC 20201

      Telephone: 202-205-8611


      Created by Congress in 1976, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) plays a vital role in developing and coordinating a wide range of national disease prevention and health promotion strategies.



      http://Psychology.info is the easiest starting point for psychology and mental health information on the Internet. The links are handpicked psychology destinations with reliable information and include recent headlines in the field of psychology.

      PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society

      6619 Palma Lane

      Morton Grove, IL 60053


      The PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society (PNIRS) is an international organization for researchers in a number of scientific and medical disciplines, including psychology, neurosciences, immunology, pharmacology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases, and rheumatology, who are interested in interactions between the nervous system and the immune system, and the relationship between behavior and health.

      Psychonomic Society

      1710 Fortview Road

      Austin, TX 78704

      Telephone: 512-462-2442


      The Psychonomic Society promotes the communication of scientific research in psychology and allied sciences. Its members are qualified to conduct and supervise scientific research, must hold a PhD degree or equivalent, and must have published significant research other than the doctoral dissertation.

      Psych web http://www.psywww.com/

      Psych web is a Web site containing lots of psychology-related information for students and teachers of psychology.

      Public Health Institute

      2001 Addison Street, Second Floor

      Berkeley, CA 94704-1103

      Telephone: 510-644-8200


      The Public Health Institute (PHI) is an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting health, well-being, and quality of life for people throughout California, across the nation, and around the world. As one of the largest and most comprehensive public health organizations in the nation, the PHI focuses its efforts in two distinct but complementary ways. PHI promotes and sustains independent, innovative research, training, and demonstration programs—many in collaboration with the private health care system and community-based organizations. PHI also serves as a partner with government to support its role in assessment, policy development, and assurance.

      Research Society on Alcoholism

      4314 Medical Parkway, Suite 12

      Austin, TX 78756-3332

      Telephone: 512-454-0022


      The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) serves as a meeting ground for scientists in the broad areas of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. The society promotes research and the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge.

      Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

      P.O. Box 2316

      Princeton, NJ 08543

      Telephone: 1-888-631-9989


      The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is the largest philanthropy devoted exclusively to health and health care in the United States. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation seeks to improve the health and health care of all Americans. To achieve the most impact with its funds, it prioritizes grants into four goal areas: to ensure that all Americans have access to quality health care at reasonable cost; to improve the quality of care and support for people with chronic health conditions; to promote healthy communities and lifestyles; and to reduce the personal, social, and economic harm caused by substance abuse—tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs.



      http://Science.gov is a gateway to authoritative selected science information provided by U.S. government agencies, including research and development results. It contains reliable information resources selected by the respective agencies as their best science information. Two major types of information are included—selected authoritative science Web sites and databases of technical reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, and other published materials. The selected Web sites can be explored from the http://science.gov home-page. The Web pages and the databases can be searched individually or simultaneously from the search page.

      Social Sciences Institute

      North Carolina AT&T University

      Charles H. Moore Building, A-35

      Greensboro, NC 27411


      The Social Sciences Institute (SSI) integrates customer opinion and fieldwork with science-based analysis to discover how social and economic aspects of human behavior can be applied to natural resource conservation programs, policies, and activities.

      Society of Behavioral Medicine

      7600 Terrace Avenue, Suite 203

      Middleton, WI 53562

      Telephone: 608-827-7267


      The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) is the nation's largest multidisciplinary organization dedicated to advancing the science and practice of behavioral medicine. Behavioral medicine is defined as an interdisciplinary field dedicated to improving individual and population health through the integration of scientific knowledge from the behavioral, biomedical, social, and public health disciplines and through the application of this evidence-based knowledge to improve prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, chronic illness management, quality of life, and coping during all phases of the life cycle.

      Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology

      4327 Ridge Road

      Palmyra, VA 22963


      The Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology (SBN) is a scientific society committed to understanding interactions between behavior and neuroendocrine function to advance understanding of behavioral neuroendocrinology. The society promotes exchanges between investigators approaching this problem from diverse perspectives. Researchers working in laboratory, field, or clinical settings and on invertebrates, vertebrates, or cell lines both in vitro and in vivo are encouraged to join the society. Scientists interested in behavioral ecology, animal behavior, biological timing, neurosciences, endocrinology, development, cell biology, and genetics are all welcome. One's research need not explicitly employ behavioral techniques as long as the research is relevant to behavior. Similarly, behavioral research need not employ neuroendocrine techniques, but only be related to neuroendocrine function. Integrating cellular and molecular concepts into a functional framework is crucial to understanding how neuroendocrine function affects behavior and is, in turn, affected by behavior.

      Society for Medical Decision Making

      1211 Locust Street

      Philadelphia, PA 19107

      Telephone: 215-545-7697


      The Society for Medical Decision Making's mission is to improve health outcomes through the advancement of proactive systematic approaches to clinical decision making and policy formation in health care by providing a scholarly forum that connects and educates researchers, providers, policymakers, and the public.

      Society for Neuroscience

      11 Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 500

      Washington, DC 20036

      Telephone: 202-462-6688


      The Society for Neuroscience (SfN) is a nonprofit membership organization of basic scientists and physicians who study the brain and nervous system. Neuroscience includes the study of brain development, sensation and perception, learning and memory, movement, sleep, stress, aging, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. It also includes the molecules, cells, and genes responsible for nervous system functioning.

      Society of Pediatric Psychology

      P.O. Box 170231

      Atlanta, GA 30317


      The Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) provides a forum for scientists and professionals interested in the health care of children, adolescents, and their families. The field of pediatric psychology is defined by the concerns of psychologists and allied professionals who work in interdisciplinary settings such as children's hospitals, developmental clinics, and pediatric or medical group practices, as well as traditional clinical child or academic arenas. It focuses on the rapidly expanding role of behavioral medicine and health psychology in the care of children, adolescents, and their families. As Division 54 of the American Psychological Association (APA), it provides an annual forum for research and practice presentations at the annual APA convention.

      Society for Prevention Research

      1300 I Street, N.W., Suite 250 West

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-216-9670


      One of the primary goals of the Society for Prevention Research (SPR) is to create a scientific, multidisciplinary forum for prevention science, and a concerted effort is being made to invite investigators whose research specialties are not represented in the current membership to join SPR.

      Society for Psychophysiological Research

      1010 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Suite 1100

      Washington, DC 20005-4907

      Telephone: 202-393-4810


      The Society for Psychophysiological Research is an international scientific society with worldwide membership. The purpose of the society is to foster research on the interrelationships between the physiological and psychological aspects of behavior.

      Society for Public Health Education

      750 First Street N.E., Suite 910

      Washington, DC 20002-4242

      Telephone: 202-408-9804


      The Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) is an independent, international professional association made up of a diverse membership of health education professionals and students. The society promotes healthy behaviors, healthy communities, and healthy environments through its membership, its network of local chapters, and its numerous partnerships with other organizations. With its primary focus on public health education, SOPHE provides leadership through a code of ethics; standards for professional preparation, research, and practice; professional development; and public outreach.

      Society for Research in Child Development

      University of Michigan

      3131 South State Street, Suite 302

      Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1623


      The purposes of the Society for Research in Child Development are to promote multidisciplinary research in the field of human development, to foster the exchange of information among scientists and other professionals of various disciplines, and to encourage applications of research findings. The society is a multidisciplinary, not-for-profit, professional association with a membership of approximately 5,500 researchers, practitioners, and human development professionals from more than 50 countries.

      Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

      7600 Terrace Avenue, Suite 203

      Middleton, WI 53562, USA

      Telephone: 608-836-3787


      The mission of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) is to stimulate the generation of new knowledge concerning nicotine in all its manifestations—from molecular to societal.

      Society for Stimulus Properties of Drugs


      The Society for Stimulus Properties of Drugs (SSPD) supports the use of drug discrimination methods and some related approaches in teaching and research on psychoactive drugs. Many of these drugs have medical uses in psychiatry and neurology, whereas others have no recognized medical uses but may be under development for such use, or are subject to abuse. Both licit and illicit substances are included. Membership of SSPD is open to individuals with bachelor or higher degrees in relevant subjects and with a genuine interest in the field.

      Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Agency

      5600 Fishers Lane

      Rockville, MD 20857


      The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Agency (SAMHSA) is the federal agency charged with improving the quality and availability of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services in order to reduce illness, death, disability, and cost to society resulting from substance abuse and mental illnesses.

      U.S. National Committee of the International Union of Psychological Science


      The International Union of Psychological Science serves as an umbrella international voice supporting “the development of psychological science, whether biological or social, normal or abnormal, pure or applied.” It has national members from close to 70 countries, and works to represent the full breadth of psychology as a profession and as a science.

      Women's Health Initiative



      The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) is one of the largest preventive studies of its kind in the United States. The WHI is a 15-year research program that is composed of three major components: a randomized controlled clinical trial of promising but unproven approaches to prevention, an observational study to identify predictors of disease, and a study of community approaches to developing healthful behaviors.

      World Health Organization

      Avenue Appia 20

      1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland

      Telephone: (+ 41 22) 791 21 11


      The World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations specialized agency for health, was established in 1948. WHO's mission is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHO's constitution as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

      Appendix B: Bibliography

      Abraído-Lanza, A. F., Dohrenwend, B. P., Ng-Mak, D. S., and Turner, J. B.The Latino mortality paradox: Atest of the “salmon bias” and healthy migrant hypotheses.American Journal of Public Health891543–1548(1999)
      Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., and Teasdale, J. D.Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation.Journal of Abnormal Psychology8749–74(1978)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.87.1.49
      ACCP/AACVPR Pulmonary Rehabilitation Guidelines Panel.Pulmonary rehabilitation: Evidence-based guidelines.Chest1121363–1396(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.112.5.1363
      Ackerman, M. D., and Carey, M. P.Psychology's rolein the assessment of erectile disorder: Historical precedents, current knowledge, and methods.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology63862–876(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.6.862
      Adams, J. S.Towards an understanding on inequity.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology67422–436(1963)
      Adams, L. A., and Rickert, V. I.Reducing bedtimetantrums: Comparison between positive routines andgraduated extinction.Pediatrics84756–761(1989)
      Aday, L. A.(2001). At risk in America: The health andhealth care needs of vulnerable populations in the United States.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Adelman, R. D., Greene, M. G., and Ory, M.Communication between older patients and their doc-tors.Clinics in Geriatric Medicine161–24(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0690%2805%2970004-5
      Ader, R.On the development of psychoneuroim-munology.European Journal of Pharmacology405(1–3)167–176(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2999%2800%2900550-1
      Ader, R., and Felten, D. L., and Cohen, N.(2001). Psycho-neuroimmunology.San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      Ades, P. A.Cardiac rehabilitation and secondaryprevention of coronary heart disease.New Engl and Journal of Medicine345892–902(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra001529
      Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R., and Syme, L.Socioeconomic statusand health: The challenge of the gradient.American Psychologist4915–24(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.1.15
      Adler, N. E., Marmot, M., and McEwen, B. S., and Stewart, J. E.(1999). Socioeconomic status and health in industrialnations: Social, psychological, and biological path-ways.New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
      Adler, N. E., and Newman, K.Socioeconomic dis-parities in health: Pathways and policies.Health Affairs21(2)60–76(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.21.2.60
      Adler, N. E., and Ostrove, J. M.SES and health: What we know and what we don't.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences8963–15(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08101.x
      Affleck, G., and Tennen, H.Construing benefits fromadversity.Journal of Personality64900–922(1996)
      Affleck, G., and Tennen, H., and Rowe, J.(1991). Infants incrisis: How parents cope with newborn intensive careand its aftermath.New York: Springer-Verlag.
      Agargun, M. Y.Serum cholesterol concentration, depression, and anxiety.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica10581–83(2002)
      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.(2003). Practiceguideline databases. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov
      Agras, W. S.The consequences and costs of eatingdisorders.Psychiatric Clinics of North America24371–379(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0193-953X%2805%2970232-X
      Aguirre-Molina, M., and Molina, C., and Zambrana, R. E. (Eds.). (2001). Health issues in the Latino community.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Airhihenbuwa, C. O.(1995). Health and culture: Beyondthe Western paradigm.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Aitkin, M., Anderson, D., and Hinde, J.Statistical modelling of data on teaching styles (with discussion).Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A144148–161(1981)
      Ajzen, I.(1988). Attitudes, personality, and behavior.Chicago: Dorsey.
      Ajzen, I.The theory of planned behavior.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes50179–211(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2891%2990020-T
      Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M.(1980). Understanding attitudesand predicting social behavior.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
      Akerlind, I., and Hornquist, J. O.Loneliness and alcohol abuse: A review of evidences of an interplay.Social Science and Medicine34405–413(1992)
      al'Absi, M., Bongard, S., Buchanan, T., Pincomb, G. A., Licinio, J., and Lovallo, W. R.Cardiovascular andneuroendocrine adjustment to public-speaking and mental arithmetic stressors.Psychophysiology34266–275(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.1997.34.issue-3
      al'Absi, M., Everson, S. A., and Lovallo, W. R.Hypertension risk factors and cardiovascular reactivityto mental stress in young men.International Journal of Psychophysiology20155–160(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-8760%2895%2900029-1
      Aldwin, C. M.(1990). The elders life stress inventory: Egocentric and nonegocentric stress. In M. A. P.Stevens, J. H.Crowther, and S. E.Hobfoll, and D. L.Tennenbaum, Stress and coping in later life families (pp. 49–69).New York: Hemisphere.
      Aldwin, C. M., and Gilmer, D. F.(2003). Health, illness, andoptimal aging: Biological and psychosocial perspectives.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Allen, M. T., Matthews, K. A., and Sherman, F. S.Cardiovascular reactivity to stress and left ventricularmass in youth.Hypertension30782–787(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.30.4.782
      Allensworth, D., Lawson, E., and Nicholson, L., and Wyche, J. (Eds.). (1997). Schools and health: Our nation's investment.Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      Allison, D. B. (Ed.). (1995). Handbook of assessment methods for eating behaviors and weight related problems: Measures, theory, and research.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Allison, T. G., Williams, D. E., Miller, T. D., Patten, C. A., Bailey, K. R., and Squires, R. W. et al. Medical and economic costs of psychologic distress in patients with coronary artery disease.Mayo Clinic Proceedings70734–742(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/70.8.734
      Altman, D. G., Schulz, K. F., Moher, D., Egger, M., Davidoff, F., and Elbourne, D. et al. The revised CONSORT Statement for reporting randomized trials: Explanation and elaboration.Annals of Internal Medicine134663–694(2001)
      Altman, I.(1975). The environment and social behavior.Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole.
      Amaro, H., Whitaker, R., Coffman, G., and Heeren, T.Acculturation and marijuana and cocaine use: Findings from HHANES 1982–84.American Journal of Public Health80(Suppl.)54–60(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.80.Suppl.54
      American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education.Children, Adolescents, and Television.Pediatrics2423–426(2001)
      American Cancer Society.(2000). Cancer facts and figures, 2000.Atlanta, GA: Author.
      American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.(2003). Retrieved from http://www.acoem.org
      American Diabetes Association.(2002). Nutritional recommendations and principles for people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org
      American Geriatrics Society.The management of chronic pain in older persons: AGS Panel on Chronic Pain in Older Persons. [Published erratum appears in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46(7), 913, 1998, July] [See comments].Journal of the American Geriatrics Society46(5)635–651(1998)
      American Psychiatric Association.(1987). Diagnostic andstatistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.).Washington, DC: Author.
      American Psychiatric Association.(1994). Diagnostic andstatistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.).Washington, DC: Author.
      American Psychiatric Association.(2000a). Diagnostic andstatistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.).Washington, DC: Author.
      American Psychiatric Association.Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (Rev. ed.).American Journal of Psychiatry157(Suppl. 1)1–39(2000b)
      American Psychiatric Association.(2003). Practice guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.psych.org/clin_res/prac_guide.cfm
      American Psychological Association.(2003). Recommen-dations for psychotherapy treatment. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/divisions/div12/journals.html
      American Sleep Disorders Association.(1997). International Classification of Sleep Disorders, revised: Diagnostic and coding manual.Rochester, MN: Author.
      Amick, B. C., III, Kawachi, I., Coakley, E. H., Lerner, D. J., Levine, S., and Colditz, G. A.Relationship of jobstrain and iso-strain to health status in a cohort ofwomen in the U.S.Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health2454–61(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.278
      Amick, B. C., III, Mc Donough, P., Chang, H., Rogers, W. H., Duncan, G., and Pieper, C.The relationshipbetween all-cause mortality and cumulative working lifecourse psychosocial and physical exposures in the United States labor market from 1968–1992.Psychosomatic Medicine64370–381(2002)
      Amir, N., and Kozak, M. J.(1998). Anxiety. In H. S.Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mental health (Vol. 1, pp. 129–135).Boston: Academic Press.
      Anda, R. F., Williamson, D. F., Escobedo, L. G., Remington, P. L., Mast, E. E., and Madans, J. H.Self-perceived stress and the risk of peptic ulcer disease: A longitudinal study of U.S. adults.Archives of Internal Medicine152829–833(1992)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1992.00400160119023
      Andersen, B. L., Anderson, B., and de Prosse, C.Controlled prospective longitudinal study of womenwith cancer, II: Psychological outcomes.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology57692–697(1989)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.6.692
      Andersen, B. J., Auslander, W. F., Jung, K. C., Miller, J. P., and Santiago, J. V.Assessing family sharing ofdiabetes responsibilities.Journal of Pediatric Psychology15477–492(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/15.4.477
      Anderson, I. M.Selective serotonin reuptakeinhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: A meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability.Journal of Affective Disorders5819–36(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327%2899%2900092-0
      Anderson, J., Moeschberger, M., Chen, M. S., Jr., Kunn, P., Wewers, M. E., and Guthrie, R.An acculturationscale for Southeast Asians.Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology28134–141(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00801744
      Anderson, L. M., Wood, D. L., and Sherbourne, C. D.Maternal acculturation and childhood immunizationlevels among children in Latino families in Los Angeles.American Journal of Public Health872018–2021(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.12.2018
      Andreasen, A. R.(1995). Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development, and the environment.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Andrews, L., and Friedland, G.Progress in HIV ther-apeutics and the challenges of adherence to antiretroviral therapy.Infectious Disease Clinics of North America14(4)901–928(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5520%2805%2970139-2
      Angel, J. L., and Angel, R. J.Age at migration, socialconnections, and well-being among elderly Hispanics.Journal of Aging and Health4480–499(1992)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089826439200400402
      Angeleri, F., Angeleri, V. A., Foschi, N., Giaquinto, S., and Nolfe, G.The influence of depression, socialactivity, and family stress on functional outcome afterstroke.Stroke241478–1483(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.24.10.1478
      ANON.Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).Journal of the American Medical Association2852486–2497(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.19.2486
      Antonovsky, A.Social class, life expectancy, and overall mortality.Milbank Quarterly4531–73(1967)
      Antonuccio, D. O.The coping with depressioncourse: A behavioral treatment for depression.Clinical Psychologist51(5)3–5(1998)
      Appels, A.Depression and coronary heart disease: Observations and questions.Journal of Psychosomatic Research43443–452(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999%2897%2900158-X
      Aranda, M. P., and Knight, B. G.The influence of ethnicity and culture of the caregiver on the caregiverstress and coping process: A sociocultural review andanalysis.Gerontologist37342–354(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/37.3.342
      Arcia, E., Skinner, M., Bailey, D., and Correa, V.Models of acculturation and health behaviors among Latino immigrants to the U.S.Social Science & Medicine5341–53(2001)
      Argyle, M.(2001). The psychology of happiness.London: Routledge.
      Armeli, S., Gunthert, K. C., and Cohen, L. H.Stressor appraisals, coping, and post-event outcomes: The dimensionality and antecedents of stress-related growth.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology20366–395(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.20.3.366.22304
      Armitage, C. J., and Conner, M.Efficacy of thetheory of planned behavior: A meta-analytic review.British Journal of Social Psychology40471–499(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466601164939
      Arno, P. S., Levine, C., and Memmott, M. M.Theeconomic value of informal caregiving.Health Affairs18182–188(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.18.2.182
      Ascher, J., Cole, J., Colin, J.-N., Feighner, J., Ferris, R., Fibiger, H., Golden, R., Martin, P., Potter, W., and Richelson, E. et al. Bupropion: A review of itsmechanism of antidepressant activity.Journal of Clinical Psychiatry56395–401(1995)
      Ascherio, A., Katan, M. B., Zock, P. L., Stampfer, M. J., and Willett, W. C.Trans fatty acids and coronaryheart disease.New England Journal of Medicine3401994–1998(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199906243402511
      Ashby, F. G., Isen, A. M., and Turken, A. U.A neu-rophysiological theory of positive affect and its influ-ence on cognition.Psychological Review106529–550(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.106.3.529
      Aspinwall, L. G., and Taylor, S. E.A stitch in time: Self-regulation and proactive coping.Psychological Bulletin121417–436(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.417
      Astin, J. A.Why patients use alternative medicine: Results of a national study.Journal of the American Medical Association2791548–1553(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.19.1548
      Astin, J. A., Beckner, W., Soeken, K., Hochberg, M. C., and Berman, B.Psychological interventions forrheumatoid arthritis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Arthritis & Rheumatism (Arthritis Care& Research)47291–302(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.v47:3
      Atienza, A. A., Henderson, P. C., Wilcox, S., and King, A. C.Gender differences in cardiovascular response todementia caregiving.Gerontologist41490–498(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/41.4.490
      Atienza, A. A., and King, A. C.Community-basedhealth intervention trials: An overview of methodologi-cal issues.Epidemiologic Reviews24(1)72–79(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/epirev/24.1.72
      Ayman, D. A., and Goldshine, A. D.Cold as a standard stimulus of blood pressure: A study of normal andhypertensive subjects.New England Journal of Medicine219650–655(1938)http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM193810272191704
      Babyak, M., Blumenthal, J. A., Herman, S., Khatri, P., Doraiswamy, M., Moore, K., Craighead, W. E., Baldewicz, T. T., and Krishnan, K. R.Exercisetreatment for major depression: maintenance of thera-peutic benefit at 10 months.Psychosomatic Medicine62633–638(2000)
      Bagley, S. P., Angel, R., Dilworth-Anderson, P., Liu, W., and Schinke, S.Panel V: Adaptive health behaviorsamong ethnic minorities.Health Psychology14632–640(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.14.7.632
      Baker, E., Israel, B., and Schurman, S.The integratedmodel: Implications for worksite health promotion andoccupational health and safety practice.Health Education Quarterly23175–188(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819602300204
      Balady, G. J., Ades, P. A., Comoss, P., Limacher, M., Pina, I. L, and Southard, D. et al. Core components of car-diac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs: Astatement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Writing Group.Circulation1021069–1073(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.102.9.1069
      Baltes, M. M., and Carstensen, L. L.The process of successful aging.Ageing and Society16397–422(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X00003603
      Bandura, A.Self-efficacy: Toward a unifyingtheory of behavior change.Psychological Bulletin84191–215(1977a)
      Bandura, A.(1977b). Social learning theory.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
      Bandura, A.(1986). Social foundations of thought andaction: A social cognitive theory.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
      Bandura, A.(1994). Social cognitive theory and exercise of control over HIV infection. In R. J.DiClemente, and J. L.Peterson (Eds.), Preventing AIDS: Theories and methods of behavioral interventions.New York: Plenum.
      Bandura, A.(1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control.New York: W. H. Freeman.
      Bandura, A.(2002). Environmental sustainability bysociocognitive deceleration of population growth. In P.Schmuch, and W.Schultz (Eds.), The psychology of sustainable development (pp. 209–238).Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
      Barbarin, O.Do parental coping, involvement, reli-giosity and racial identity mediate children's psychological adjustment to sickle cell disease?Journal of Black Psychology25391–426(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798499025003008
      Barbarin, O., Whitten, C., and Bonds, S.Estimatingrates of psychosocial problems in urban and poorchildren with sickle cell anemia.Health and Social Work19112–119(1994)
      Barefoot, J. C.(1992). Developments in the measurementof hostility. In H.Friedman (Ed.), Hostility, coping, andhealth (pp. 13–31).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Barefoot, J. C., Dodge, K. A., Peterson, B. L., Dahlstrom, W. G., and Williams, R. B., Jr.The Cook-Medley Hostility Scale: Item content and ability to predict sur-vival.Psychosomatic Medicine5146–57(1989)
      Barker, D. J. P.(1998). Mothers, babies and health in laterlife.Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
      Barlow, D. H.Causes of sexual dysfunction: Therole of anxiety and cognitive interference.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology54140–148(1986)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.54.2.140
      Barlow, D. H.(1988). Anxiety and its disorders.New York: Guilford.
      Barlow, J., Wright, C., Sheasby, J., Turner, A., and Hainsworth, J.Self-management approaches forpeople with chronic conditions: A review.Patient Education & Counseling16031–11(2002)
      Baron-Epel, O., and Kaplan, G.General subjectivehealth status or age-related health status: Does it make adifference?Social Science & Medicine531373–1381(2001)
      Barrera, M., Jr., Sandler, I. N., and Ramsay, T. B.Preliminary development of a scale of social support: Studies on college students.American Journal of Community Psychology9435–447(1981)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00918174
      Barrett, D., Wisotzek, I. E., Abel, G. G., Rouleau, J. L., Plat, A. F., Pollard, W. E., and Eckman, J. R.Assessment of psychosocial functioning of patients withsickle cell disease.Southern Medical Journal81745–750(1988)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007611-198806000-00015
      Bartlett, J. A.Addressing the challenges of adher-ence.JAIDS29S2–S10(2002)
      Baskin, M. L.Conducting health interventions in Black churches: A model for building effective partner-ships.Ethnicity and Disease11823–833(2001)
      Basmajian, J. V.(1962). Muscles alive.Baltimore: Williamsand Wilkins.
      Bass, D. M., Mc Clendon, M. J., Deimling, G. T., and Mukherjee, S.The influence of a diagnosed mental impairment on family caregiver strain.Journalof Gerontology49S146–S155(1994)
      Bassuk, S., Glass, T., and Berkman, L.Social disen-gagement and incident cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly persons.Annals of Internal Medicine131165–173(1999)
      Bastani, R., Berman, B. A., Belin, T. R., Crane, L. A., Marcus, A. C., and Nasseri, K. et al. Increasing cervical cancer screening among underserved women in alarge county health system: Can it be done? What doesit take?Medical Care40891–907(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-200210000-00007
      Baum, A.(1987). Toxins, technology, and natural disasters. In G. R. VandenBos, and B. K.Bryant (Eds.), Cataclysms, crises, and catastrophes: Psychology in action. Themaster lectures (pp. 9–53).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Baum, A., and Andersen, B. L. (Eds.). (2001). Psychosocialinterventions for cancer.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Baum, A., Gatchel, R. J., and Aiello, J. R., and Thompson, D.(1981). Cognitive mediation of environmental stress. In J. H.Harvey (Ed.), Cognition, social behavior and the environment (pp. 513–533).Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Baum, A., and Paulus, P. B.(1987). Crowding. In D.Stokols, and I.Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 533–570).New York: John Wiley.
      Baumstark, K. E., and Buckelew, S. P.Fibromyalgia: Clinical signs, research findings, treatment implications, and future directions.Annals of Behavioral Medicine14282–291(1992)
      Bausell, R. B., and Berman, B. M.Commentary: Alternative medicine: Is it a reflection of the continuedemergence of the biopsychosocial paradigm?American Journal of Medical Quality17(1)28–32(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106286060201700106
      Beaglehole, R.International trends in coronaryheart disease mortality, morbidity, and risk factors.Epidemiological Reviews121–16(1990)
      Beck, A. T.(1967). Depression: Causes and treatment.Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
      Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., and Shaw, B. F., and Emery, G.(1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.New York: Guilford.
      Beck, A. T., and Steer, R. A.Clinical predictors ofeventual suicide: A fiveto ten-year study of suicideattempters.Journal of Addictive Disorders17203–209(1989)
      Beck, A. T., and Steer, R. A.(1993). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory.San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
      Beck, A. T., and Steer, R. A., and Brown, G. K.(1996). Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II.San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
      Beck, A. T., and Steer, R. A., and Brown, G. K.(2000). Manual for Beck Depression Inventory Fast Screen for Medical Settings.San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
      Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., and Erbaugh, J.An inventory for measuring depression.Archives of General Psychiatry4561–571(1961)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004
      Beck, J. S., and Beck, A. T., and Jolly, J.(2001). Manual for the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment.San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
      Becker, M. H.The health belief model and personalhealth behavior.Health Education Monographs2324–473(1974)
      Beckham, E. E., and Leber, W. R. (Eds.). (1995). Handbookof depression (2nd ed.).New York: Guilford.
      Bedi, M., Varshney, V. P., and Babbar, R.Role of car-diovascular reactivity to mental stress in predicting future hypertension.Clinical and Experimental Hypertension221–22(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CEH-100100058
      Belgrave, F., and Molock, S.The role of depressionin hospital admissions and emergency treatment of patients with sickle cell disease.Journal of the National Medical Association83777–781(1991)
      Belkic, K., Savic, C., Theorell, T., Rakic, L., Ercegovac, D., and Djordjevic, M.Mechanisms of cardiacrisk among professional drivers.Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Healthpp. 73–86(1994, April)
      Bellamy, N., Buchanan, W. W., Goldsmith, C. H., Campbell, J., and Stitt, L. W.Validation study of WOMAC.Journal of Rheumatology151833–1840(1988)
      Belle, D.Poverty and women's mental health.American Psychologist45385–389(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.3.385
      Bendtsen, L., Norregaard, J., Jensen, R., and Olesen, J.Evidence of qualitatively altered nociception inpatients with FM.Arthritis Rheumatology4098–102(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.v40:1
      Benfari, R. C.The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention (MRFIT): The model for intervention.Preventive Medicine10426–442(1981)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2881%2990059-1
      Bennett, G. G., Merritt, M. M., Edwards, C. L., and Sollers, J., and Williams, R. B.(n.d.). High effort coping, jobdemands, and the cortisol response to awakening.Unpublished manuscript.
      Bennett, N.(1976). Teaching styles and pupil progress.London: Open Books.
      Bennett, R.Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain.Current Opinions in Rheumatology1095–103(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002281-199803000-00002
      Bennett, R. M.Fibromyalgia: The commonestcause of widespread pain.Comprehensive Therapy21269–275(1995)
      Bennett, R. M.Multidisciplinary group programs totreat fibromyalgia patients.Rheumatic Diseases Clinicsof North America22351–367(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0889-857X%2805%2970276-3
      Bergner, M., Bobbitt, R. A., Kressel, S., Pollard, W., Gilson, B., and Morris, J.The Sickness Impact Profile: Conceptual formulation and methodology forthe development of health status measure.International Journal of Health Services6393–415(1976)http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/RHE0-GGH4-410W-LA17
      Berkman, L. F., and Glass, T.(2000). Social integration, social networks, social support and health. In L. F.Berkman, and I.Kawachi (Eds.), Social epidemiology (pp. 137–173).New York: Oxford University Press.
      Berkman, L. F., and Syme, S. L.Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine-year follow-upstudy of Alameda County residents.American Journalof Epidemiology109186–204(1979)
      Berlin, J. A., and Colditz, G. A.A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease.American Journal of Epidemiology1332612–628(1990)
      Bernard, H. R.(2000). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Bernard-Bonnin, A., Stachenko, S., Bonnin, D., Charette, C., and Rousseau, E.Self-management teachingprograms and morbidity of pediatric asthma: A meta-analysis.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology90135–138(1995)
      Berne, R. M., and Levy, M. N.(1997). Cardiovascular phys-iology.St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.
      Berntson, G. G., Bigger, J. T., Eckberg, D. L., Grossman, P., Kaufmann, P. G., and Malik, M. et al. Heart ratevariability: Origins, methods, and interpretive caveats.Psychophysiology34623–648(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.1997.34.issue-6
      Beutler, L. E.David and Goliath: When empiricaland clinical standards of practice meet.American Psychologist55997–1007(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.9.997
      Biddle, S. J. H., and Mutrie, N.(2001). Psychology of physical activity.London: Routledge.
      Bien, T., and Burge, R.Smoking and drinking: Areview of the literature.International Journal of Addictions251429–1454(1990)
      Births: Final data for 2000.(2002). National Vital Statistics Reports, 50(5). Public Health Service Report No. 2002–1120. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr50/nvsr50_05.pdf
      Black, D., Morris, J. N., and Smith, C., et al. (1982). Inequalities in health: The Black report.Middlesex: Penguin.
      Blackburn, H., Luepker, R. V., Kline, F. G., Bracht, N., Carlaw, R. W., and Jacobs, D. R., et al. (1984). The Minnesota Heart Health Program: A research and demonstration project in cardiovascular disease prevention. In J. D.Matarazzo, and N. E.Miller, and S. M.Weiss (Eds.), Behavioral health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 1171–1178).New York: John Wiley.
      Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., III, Barlow, C. E., Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr., Gibbons, L. W., and Marera, C. A.Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality.Journal of the American Medical Association2731093–1098(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520380029031
      Blair, S. N.Morrow, J. R.Theme issue: Physical activity interventions [Special issue].American Journal of Preventive Medicine15(4)(1998)
      Blanchard, E. B.(2001). Irritable bowel syndrome: Psychosocial assessment and treatment.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Blanchard, E. B., Schwarz, S. P., Suls, J. M., Gerardi, M. A., Scharff, L., and Greene, B. et al. Two controlledevaluations of multicomponent psychological treatmentof irritable bowel syndrome.Behaviour Research and Therapy30175–189(1992)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2892%2990141-3
      Blascovich, J., and Katkin, E. S.(1993). Cardiovascularreactivity to psychological stress and disease.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Blazer, D.Psychiatry and the oldest old.American Journal of Psychiatry1571915–1924(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.12.1915
      Blazer, D., Hybels, C., and Pieper, C.The association of depression and mortality in elderly persons: A casefor multiple independent pathways.Journal of Gerontology: Medical Science56AM505–M509(2001)
      Block, J., and Kremen, A. M.IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology70349–361(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.2.349
      Block, L., Morwitz, V. G., Putsis, W. P., and Sen, S. K.Assessing the impact of anti-drug advertisingon adolescent drug consumption: Results from abehavioral model.American Journal of Public Health921346–1351(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.8.1346
      Blumenthal, J. A., Sherwood, A., Gullette, E. C. D., Georgiades, A., and Tweedy, D.Biobehavioralapproaches to the treatment of essential hypertension.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology70(3)569–589(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.3.569
      Bobo, J.Nicotine dependence and alcoholism epi-demiology and treatment.Journal of Psychoactive Drugs21(3)323–329(1989)http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1989.10472174
      Bogden, J. F.(2000). Fit, healthy, and ready to learn: Aschool health policy guide, Part I: Physical activity, healthy eating, and tobacco-use prevention.Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Boards of Education.
      Bolger, N., Zuckerman, A., and Kessler, R. C.Invisible support and adjustment to stress.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology79953–961(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.6.953
      Booth-Kewley, S., and Friedman, H. S.Psychologicalpredictors of heart disease: A quantitative review.Psychological Bulletin101343–362(1987)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.3.343
      Borkum, J.(in press). Chronic headaches: Biology, psy-chology and behavioral treatment.Hillsdale, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum.
      Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Botvin, E. M., and Diaz, T.Long-term follow-up results of a ran-domized drug abuse prevention trial in a White middle-class population.Journal of the American Medical Association2731106–1112(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520380042033
      Bowlby, J.(1969). Attachment and loss (Vol. 1).London: Hogarth.
      Bowling, A.(1995). Measuring disease.Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
      Bradley, C., Riazi, A., Barendse, S., and Pierce, M., and Hendrieck, C.(2001). Diabetes mellitus. In D. W.Johnston (Ed.), Health psychology (pp. 277–304).Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
      Bradley, L. A., and McKendree-Smith, N. L.Centralnervous system mechanisms of pain in fibromyalgia andother musculoskeletal disorders: Behavioral and psychologic treatment approaches.Current Opinion in Rheumatology1445–51(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002281-200201000-00009
      Brady, J. V., Porter, R. W., Conrad, D. G., and Mason, J. W.Avoidance behavior and the development of gas-troduodenal ulcers.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior169–71(1958)http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1958.1-69
      Brassington, J. C., and Marsh, N. V.Neuropsychologicalaspects of multiple sclerosis.Neuropsychological Review843–77(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025621700003
      Brickman, P., Coates, D., and Janoff-Bulman, R.Lotterywinners and accident victims: Is happiness relative?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology36917–927(1978)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.8.917
      Brisson, C., Laflamme, N., Moisan, J., Milot, A., Masse, B., and Vezina, M.Effect of family responsibilities andjob strain on ambulatory blood pressure among white-collar women.Psychosomatic Medicine61205–213(1999)
      Broadhead, W., Blazer, D., George, L., and Tse, C.Depression, disability days and days lost from work: Aprospective epidemiologic survey.Journal of the American Medical Association2642524–2528(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1990.03450190056028
      Brody, H., with Brody, D.(2000). The placebo response: How to release the body's inner pharmacy for betterhealth.New York: Harper Collins.
      Bross, I. D. J.Pertinency of an extraneous variable.Journal of Chronic Diseases20487–495(1967)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681%2867%2990080-X
      Brown, P. C., and Smith, T. W.Social influence, mar-riage, and the heart: cardiovascular consequences ofinterpersonal control in husbands and wives.Health Psychology11(2)88–96(1992)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.11.2.88
      Brown, P. C., Smith, T. W., and Benjamin, L. S.Perceptions of spouse dominance predict blood pressurereactivity during marital interactions.Annals of Behavioral Medicine20(4)286–293(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02886378
      Brown, R. T., Armstrong, F. D., and Eckman, J. R.Neurocognitive aspects of paediatric sickle cell disease.Journal of Learning Disabilities2633–45(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949302600104
      Browne, A., Miller, B., and Maguin, E.Prevalenceand severity of lifetime physical and sexual victimization among incarcerated women.International Journalof Law and Psychiatry22301–322(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2527%2899%2900011-4
      Brownell, K. D.(2000). The LEARN program for weightmanagement.Dallas, TX: American Health.
      Brownley, K. A., and Hurwitz, B. E., and Schneiderman, N.(2000). Cardiovascular psychophysiology. In J. T.Cacioppo, and L. G.Tassinary, and G. G.Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (2nd ed.).Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
      Brownson, R. C., Housemann, R. A., Brown, D. R., Jackson-Thompson, J., King, A. C., Malone, B. R., and Sallis, J. F.Promoting physical activity in ruralcommunities: Walking trail access, use, and effects.American Journal of Preventive Medicine18235–241(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2899%2900165-8
      Bruehl, S., McCubbin, J. A., and Harden, R. N.Theoretical review: Altered pain regulatory systems inchronic pain.Neuro science and Biobehavioral Reviews23877–890(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634%2899%2900039-1
      Brunner, E. J.Stress and the biology of inequality.British Medical Journal3141472–1476(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7092.1472
      Brunner, E. J.(2000). Toward a new social biology. In L. F.Berkman, and I.Kawachi (Eds.), Social epidemiology.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Brunner, E. J., Hemingway, H., Walker, B. R., Page, M., Clarke, P., Juneja, M., Shipley, M. J., Kumari, M., Andrew, R., Seckl, J. R., Papadopoulos, A., Checkley, S., Rumley, A., Lowe, G. D. O., Stansfeld, S. A., and Marmot, M. G.Adrenocortical, autonomic and inflammatory causes of the metabolic syndrome: Case-control study.Circulation1062659–2665(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000038364.26310.BD
      Brunner, E. J., Marmot, M. G., Nanchahal, K., Shipley, M. J., Stansfeld, S. A., Juneja, M., and Alberti, K. G. M. M.Social inequality in coronary risk: Central obe-sity and the metabolic syndrome. Evidence from the WII Study.Diabetologia401341–1349(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001250050830
      Buchholz, W. M.The medical uses of hope.Western Journal of Medicine14869(1988)
      Budney, A. J., and Higgins, S. T.(1998). The community rein-forcement plus vouchers approach: Manual 2: National Institute on Drug Abuse therapy manuals for drugaddiction. (NIH Pub. No. 98–4308).Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
      Buller, D. B., Morrill, C., Taren, D., Aickin, M., Sennott-Miller, L., and Buller, M. K. et al. Randomized trialtesting: The effect of peer education at increasing fruitand vegetable intake.Journal of the National Cancer Institute911491–1500(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/91.17.1491
      Burg, M. M., and Seeman, T. E.Families and health: The negative side of social ties.Annals of Behavioral Medicine16(2)109–115(1994)
      Burke, L. E., and Ockene, I. S. (Eds.). (2001). Compliance inhealthcare and research.Armonk, NY: Futura.
      Burt, R. S.(1982). Toward a structural theory of action.New York: Academic Press.
      Buss, A. H., and Durkee, A.An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility.Journal of Consulting Psychology21343–349(1957)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046900
      Buss, A. H., and Perry, M.The aggression question-naire.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology63452–459(1992)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.63.3.452
      Byrd, W. M., and Clayton, L. A.(2000). An American healthdilemma: The medical history of African Americans andthe problem of race.New York: Routledge.
      Byrne, D.(1964). Repression-sensitization as a dimensionof personality. In B. A.Maher (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 1, pp. 169–220).New York: Academic Press.
      Cabana, M. D., Ebel, B. E., Cooper-Patrick, L., Powe, N. R., Rubin, H. R., and Rand, C. S.Barriers pediatriciansface when using asthma practice guidelines.Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine154685–693(2000)
      Cacioppo, J. T., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M. H., McClintock, M. K., Malarkey, W. B., Hawkley, L. C., Kowalewski, R. B., Paulsen, A., Hobson, J. A., Hugdahl, K., Spiegel, D., and Berntson, G. G.Lonely traits and con-comitant physiological processes: The Mac Arthur socialneuroscience studies.International Journal of Psycho-physiology35143–154(2000)
      Cacioppo, J. T., and Tassinary, L. G., and Berntson, G. G. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of psychophysiology.New York: Cambridge University Press.
      Caetano, R., and Mora, M. E.Acculturation anddrinking among people of Mexican descent in Mexicoand the United States.Journal of Studies on Alcohol49462–471(1988)
      Calfas, K. J., Sallis, J. F., Nichols, J. F., Sarkin, J. A., Johnson, M. F., and Caparosa, S.Project GRAD: Two-year outcomes of a randomized controlled physicalactivity intervention among young adults.American Journal of Preventive Medicine1828–37(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2899%2900117-8
      Cameron, N.(1947). The psychology of behavior disorders: A bio-social interpretation.Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
      Campbell, J. K., and Penzien, D. B., and Wall, E. M.(2000). Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache: Behavioral and physical treatments. U.S. Headache Consortium. Retrieved May 15, 2001, from http://www.aan.com/public/practiceguidelines/headache_gl.htm
      Campbell, M. K.The North Carolina Black Churches United for Better Health Project: Interventionand process evaluation.Health Education and Behavior27241–253(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019810002700210
      Campbell, R. S., and Pennebaker, J. W.The secretlife of pronouns: Flexibility in writing style and physicalhealth.Psychological Science. (in press)
      Cannon, W. B.(1929). Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage.New York: Appleton.
      Cannuscio, C. C., Jones, C., Kawachi, I., Colditz, G. A., Berkman, L., and Rimm, E.Reverberations offamily illness: A longitudinal assessment of informalcaregiving and mental health status in the Nurses' Health Study.American Journal of Public Health921305–1312(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.8.1305
      Caplin, D. L., and Creer, T. L.A self-managementprogram for adult asthma, III: Maintenance and relapseof skills.Journal of Asthma38343–356(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/JAS-100000263
      Cappelli, P., Bassi, L., Katz, H., Knoke, D., and Osterman, P., and Useem, M.(1997). Change at work.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Carels, R. A., Sherwood, A., Szczepanski, R., and Blumenthal, J. A.Ambulatory blood pressure and maritaldistress in employed women.Behavioral Medicine26(2)80–85(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08964280009595755
      Carey, K. B., and Carey, M. P.Changes in self-efficacy resulting from unaided attempts to quit smoking.Psychology of Addictive Behaviors7219–224(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.7.4.219
      Carey, M. P., and Vanable, P. A.(2003). HIV/AIDS. In A. M.Nezu, and C. M.Nezu, and P. A.Geller (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology: Vol. 9. Healthpsychology.New York: John Wiley.
      Carleton, R. A., Lasater, T. M., Assaf, A. R., Feldman, H. A., and McKinlay, S.The Pawtucket Heart Health Program: Community changes in cardiovascularrisk factors and projected disease risk.American Journal of Public Health85777–785(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.85.6.777
      Carleton, R. A., Lasater, T. M., Assaf, A. R., Lefebvre, R. C., and McKinlay, S. M.The Pawtucket Heart Health Program: An experiment in population-baseddisease prevention.Rhode Island Medical Journal70533–538(1987)
      Carrasquillo, O., Carrasquillo, A. I., and Shea, S.Health insurance coverage of immigrants living in the United States: Differences by citizenship status andcountry of origin.American Journal of Public Health90917–923(2000)
      Carroll, D.(1992). Health psychology: Stress, behaviourand disease.London: Falmer.
      Carroll-Ghosh, T., and Victor, B., and Bourgeois, J.(2002). Suicide. In R.Hales, and S.Yudofsky (Eds.), Textbook of clinical psychiatry (pp. 1457–1483).Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
      Carter-Pokras, O., and Zambrana, R. E.(2001). Latino healthstatus. In M.Aguirre-Molina, and C.Molina, and R. E.Zambrana (Eds.), Health issues in the Latino community (pp. 23–54).San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Carver, C. S.Resilience and thriving: Issues, models and linkages.Journal of Social Issues54245–266(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1998.tb01217.x
      Carver, C. S.(2001). Depression, hopelessness, optimism, and health. In N. J.Smelser, and P. T.Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioralsciences (Vol. 5, pp. 3516–3522).Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
      Carver, C. S., and Scheier, M. F.(1998). On the self-regulation of behavior.New York: Cambridge University Press.
      Carver, C. S., and Scheier, M. F.(2002). Optimism. In C. R.Snyder, and S. J.Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 231–243).New York: Oxford University Press.
      Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., and Weintraub, J. K.Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically basedapproach.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology56267–283(1989)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.267
      Case, A., and Paxson, C.Parental behavior and childhealth.Health Affairs21(2)164–178(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.21.2.164
      Caspersen, C. J., and Merritt, R. K., and Stephens, T.(1994). International activity patterns: A methodological perspective. In R. K.Dishman (Ed.), Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 73–110).Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
      Caspersen, C. J., Pereira, M. A., and Curran, K. M.Changes in physical activity patterns in the United States by sex and cross-sectional age.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise321601–1609(2000)
      Cassel, J.The contribution of the social environment to host resistance.American Journal of Epidemiology104107–123(1976)
      Cassel, J. C., Patrick, R., and Jenkins, C. D.Epidemiological analysis of the health implications of culture change.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences84938–949(1960)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1960.tb39126.x
      Catanzaro, S. J., and Greenwood, G.Expectanciesfor negative mood regulation, coping, and dysphoriaamong college students.Journal of Counseling Psychology4134–44(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.41.1.34
      Cattell, R. B.(1957). Handbook for the I.P.A.T. Anxiety Scale.Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
      Cattell, R. B.(1966). Patterns of change: Measurement inrelation to state-dimension, trait change, lability, andprocess concepts. In Handbook of multivariate experi-mental psychology.Chicago: Rand McNally.
      Cattell, R. B., and Scheier, I. H.The nature of anxiety: A review of thirteen multivariate analyses comprising814 variables.Psychological Reports4351(1958)http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1958.4.3.351
      Cattell, R. B., and Scheier, I. H.(1963). Handbook for the IPAT Anxiety Scale (2nd ed.).Champaign, IL: Institutefor Personality and Ability Testing.
      Catz, S. L., Kelly, J. A., Bogurt, L. M., Benotsch, E. G., and McAuliffe, T. L.Patterns, correlates, and barriersto medication adherence among persons prescribed newtreatments for HIV disease.Health Psychology19(2)124–133(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.19.2.124
      Caudill, M.(2001). Managing pain before it manages you [Patient workbook] (Rev. ed.).New York: Guilford.
      Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence at the University of Colorado.(2003). Retrieved from http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/index.html
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Guidelines for effective school health education to pre-vent the spread of AIDS.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report371–14(1988)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.(1992). Youthsuicide prevention program: A resource guide.Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services.
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Mandatory bicycle helmet use: Victoria, Australia.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report42359–363(1993a)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guideline.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report42(No. RR-14)56–66(1993b)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Useof race and ethnicity in public health surveillance. Summary of the CDC/ATSDR Workshop.Morbidityand Mortality Weekly Report421–28(1993c)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Current trends: Prevalence of disabilities and associated health conditions—United States, 1991–1992.Morbidityand Mortality Weekly Report43(40)737–739(1994a)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Guidelines for school health programs to preventtobacco use and addiction.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report431–18(1994b)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Guidelines for school health programs to promote life-long healthy eating.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report451–41(1996a)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Tenleading nationally notifiable infectious diseases—United States, 1995.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report45883–884(1996b)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Guidelines for school and community programs to pro-mote lifelong physical activity among young people.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report461–36(1997)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.(1999a, March). Best practices for comprehensive tobacco con-trol programs.Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Healthand Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smokingand Health.
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 1997.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report48993–996(1999b)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Birthsto teenagers in the United States, 1940–2000.National Vital Statistics Reports49(10)1–24(2001)
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.(2002). Aglance at the HIV epidemic. Retrieved December 31, 2002, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts.htm
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Revised birth and fertility rates for the United States in 2000–2001.National Vital Statistics Reports51(4)1–24(2003)
      Chambless, D. L., and Ollendick, T. H.Empiricallysupported psychological interventions: Controversies andevidence.Annual Review of Psychology52685–716(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.685
      Chaney, E. F., O'Leary, M. R., and Marlatt, G. A.Skill training in alcoholics.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology461092–1104(1978)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.5.1092
      Chang, E. C. (Ed.). (2001). Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Chang, E. C., D'Zurilla, T. J., and Maydeu-Olivares, A.Optimism and pessimism as partially independentconstructs: Relations to positive and negative affectivityand psychological well-being.Personality and Individual Differences23433–440(1997)
      Chapman, C. R., and Okifuji, A.(in press). Pain: Basic mechanisms and conscious experience. In R. H.Dworkin, and W. S.Breibart (Eds.), Psychosocial and psychiatricaspects of pain: A handbook for health care providers.
      Chen, X., Unger, J. B., and Johnson, C. A.Is acculturation a risk factor for early smoking initiation among Chinese American minors? A comparative perspective.Tobacco Control8402–410(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tc.8.4.402
      Chesney, M. A., Morin, M., and Sherr, L.Adherenceto combination therapy.Social Science & Medicine501599–1605(2000)
      Chesney, M. A., and Ozer, E. M.Women and health: In search of a paradigm.Women's Health: Research on Gender, Behavior, and Policy13–26(1995)
      Cheung, F. K., and Snowden, L. R.Community men-tal health and ethnic minority populations.Community Mental Health Journal26277–291(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00752778
      Child Trends, Inc.(2001). Facts at a glance, 12/99overview. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/.8
      Chobanian, A. V.the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee.The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 report.Journal of the American Medical Association2892560–2572(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.19.2560
      Chrousos, G. P.Stressors, stress, and neuroen-docrine integration of the adaptive response: The 1997Hans Selye Memorial Lecture.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences851311–335(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09006.x
      Chun, K. M., and Balls Organista, P., and Marín, G. (Eds.). (2003). Acculturation: Advances in theory, measure-ment and applied research.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Clark, L. A., and Watson, D.A tripartite model ofanxiety and depression: Psychometric evaluation andtaxonomic implications.Journal of Abnormal Psychology100316–336(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.100.3.316
      Clark, N. M.(1998). Management of asthma by parents andchildren. In H.Kotses, and A.Harver (Eds.), Self-managementof asthma (pp. 271–291).New York: Marcel Dekker.
      Clark, N. M.(2002, March). Evaluation and results of 3 NHLBI-funded studies of school-based asthma education.Presentation at American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Annual Meeting, New York.
      Clark, N. M., Feldman, C. H., Evans, D., Duzey, O., Levison, M. J., and Wasilewski, Y. et al. Managingbetter: Children, parents, and asthma.Patient Education & Counseling827–38(1986)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0738-3991%2886%2990024-8
      Clark, N. M., Gong, M., and Kaciroti, N.A model of self-regulation for control of chronic disease.Health Education & Behavior28769–782(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019810102800608
      Clark, N. M., Gong, M., Schork, M. A., Kaciroti, N., Evans, D., and Roloff, D. et al. Long-term effects of asthmaeducation for physicians on patient satisfaction and use of health services.European Respiratory Journal1615–21(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3003.2000.16a04.x
      Clark, N. M., Nothwehr, F., Gong, M., Evans, D., Maiman, L. A., and Hurwitz, M. E. et al. Physician-patientpartnership in managing chronic illness.Academic Medicine70957–959(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199511000-00008
      Clark, R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., and Williams, D. R.Racism as a stressor for African Americans: Abiopsychosocial model.American Psychologist54805–816(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.10.805
      Clarke, A. (Ed.). (1998). The genetic testing of children.Oxford, UK: Bios Scientific Publishers.
      Clauw, D. J.The pathogenesis of chronic pain andfatigue syndromes, with special reference to fibromyal-gia.Medical Hypotheses44369–378(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-9877%2895%2990263-5
      Clauw, D. J., and Chrousos, G. P.Chronic pain andfatigue syndromes: Overlapping clinical and neuroen-docrine features and potential pathogenic mechanisms.Neuroimmunomodulation4134–153(1997)
      Clayton, D., and Hills, M.(1993). Statistical models in epi-demiology.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Cleary, P. D., Van Devanter, N., Steilen, M., Stuart, A., Shipton-Levy, R., McMullen, W., Rogers, T. F., Singer, E., Avorn, J., and Pindyck, J.A randomized trialof an education and support program for HIV-infectedindividuals.AIDS91271–1278(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199511000-00009
      Clifford, J.(1988). Predicament of culture: Twentieth-cen-tury ethnography, literature and art.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
      Coates, T. J., McKusick, L., Kuno, R., and Stites, D. P.Stress reduction training changed number of sexual partners but not immune function in men with HIV.American Journal of Public Health79885–887(1989)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.79.7.885
      Cobas, J. A., Balcazar, H., Benin, M. B., Keith, V. M., and Chong, Y.Acculturation and low-birthweightinfants among Latino women: A reanalysis of HHANESdata with structural equation models [See comments].American Journal of Public Health86394–396(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.3.394
      Cobb, S.Social support as a moderator of lifestress.Psychosomatic Medicine38300–314(1976)
      Cochran Collaboration.(2003). Recent reviews of treat-ments. Retrieved from http://www.cochrane.org
      Coe, C. L., and Lubach, G. R.Critical periods of special health relevance for psychoneuroimmunology.Brain, Behavior, and Immunity17(1)3–12(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0889-1591%2802%2900099-5
      Cohen, S.Psychosocial models of the role of socialsupport in the etiology of physical disease.Health Psychology7269–297(1988)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.7.3.269
      Cohen, S., and Gottlieb, B. H., and Underwood, L. G.(2000). Social relationships and health. In S.Cohen, and L. G.Underwood, and B. H.Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support mea-surement and intervention: A guide for health and socialscientists (pp. 1–25).New York: Oxford University Press.
      Cohen, S., and Herbert, T. B.Health psychology: Psychological factors and physical disease from the per-spective of human psychoneuroimmunology.Annual Review of Psychology47113–142(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.47.1.113
      Cohen, S., and Kessler, R. C., and Underwood, L. G.(1995). Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scien-tists.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Cohen, S., and McKay, G.(1984). Social support, stress andthe buffering hypothesis: A theoretical analysis. In A.Baum, and S. E.Taylor, and J. E.Singer (Eds.), Handbookof psychology and health (pp. 253–267).Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Cohen, S., Mermelstein, R., and Kamarck, T., and Hoberman, H. M.(1985). Measuring the functional components of social support. In I. G.Sarason, and B. R.Sarason (Eds.), Social support: Theory research and applications.Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.
      Cohen, S., and Underwood, S., and Gottlieb, B.(2000). Socialsupport measures and intervention.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Cohen, S., and Wills, T. A.Stress, social support, andthe buffering hypothesis.Psychological Bulletin98310–357(1985)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310
      Cole, S. W., and Kemeny, M. E.(2000). Psychosocial influ-ences on the progression of HIV infection. In R.Ader, and D. L.Felten, and N.Cohen (Eds.), Psychoneuroimmunology (3rd ed., pp. 583–612).New York: Academic Press.
      Coleman, J. S.(1990). Foundations of social theory.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
      Collins, J. W., Jr., David, R. J., Symons, R., Handler, A., Wall, S. N., and Dwyer, L.Low-income African-American mothers' perception of exposure to racial dis-crimination and infant birth weight.Epidemiology11337–339(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001648-200005000-00019
      Collins, J., and David, R.The differential effect oftraditional risk factors on infant birth weight among Blacks and Whites in Chicago.American Journal of Public Health80679–681(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.80.6.679
      Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance, Board on Health Care Services.(2002). Care without courage: Too little, too late.IOM report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      Committee on Diet and Health; National Research Council.(1989). Diet and health: Implications for reducingchronic disease risk.Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      Conklin, C. A., and Tiffany, S. T.Applying extinctionresearch and theory to cue-exposure addiction treat-ments.Addiction97155–167(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00014.x
      Conner Christensen, T., Feldman Barrett, L., Bliss-Moreau, E., Lebo, K., and Kaschub, C.A practical guide toexperience sampling procedures.Journal of Happiness Studies453–78(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023609306024
      Connolly, K. J., Edelmann, R. J., Bartlett, H., Cooke, I. D., Lenton, E., and Pike, S.An evaluation of coun-selling for couples undergoing treatment for in-vitro fer-tilization.Human Reproduction81332–1338(1993)
      CONSORT Statement.(2003). Retrieved from http://www.consort-statement.org
      Cook, W. W., and Medley, D. M.Proposed hostilityand pharisaic-virtue scales for the MMPI.Journal of Applied Psychology38414–418(1954)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0060667
      Cooper, J. O., and Heron, T. E., and Heward, W. L.(1987). Applied behavior analysis.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merril.
      Cooper-Patrick, L. et al. Race, gender, and partner-ship in the patient-physician relationship.Journal of the American Medical Association282583–589(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.6.583
      Corcoran, J., Franklin, C., and Bennett, P.Ecologicalfactors associated with adolescent pregnancy and par-enting.Social Work Research2429–39(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/swr/24.1.29
      Cornelius, L. J.(2000). Limited choices for medical careamong minority populations. In C. J. R.Hogue, and M. A.Hargraves, and K. S.Collins (Eds.), Minority health in America: Findings and policy implications from the Commonwealth Fund minority survey (pp. 176–193).Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
      Cousins, N.(1979). Anatomy of an illness.New York: Bantam Books.
      Covey, L., and Glassman, A., and Stetner, F.(1998). Cigarettesmoking and major depression. In M.Gold, and B.Stimmel (Eds.), Smoking and illicit drug use (pp. 35–46).Binghamton, NY: Haworth Medical Press.
      Cox, V. C., Paulus, P. B., and McCain, G., and Karlovac, M.(1982). The relationship between crowding and health. In A.Baum, and J. E.Singer (Eds.), Advances in environ-mental psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 271–294).Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Cram, J. R. (Ed.). (1990). Clinical EMG for surface recordings (Vol. 2).Nevada City, CA: Clinical Resources.
      Cram, J. R., and Kasman, G.(1998). Introduction to surfaceelectromyography.Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.
      Creed, F.The relationship between psychosocialparameters and outcome in irritable bowel syndrome.American Journal of Medicine10774S–80S(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343%2899%2900083-2
      Creer, T. L., and Levstek, D. A., and Reynolds, R. C. V.(1998). History and evaluation. In H.Kotses, and A.Harver (Eds.), Self-management of asthma (pp. 379–405).New York: Marcel Dekker.
      Crellin, J. K., and Andersen, R. R., and Connor, J. T. H. (Eds.). (1997). Alternative health care in Canada: Nineteenthand twentieth century perspectives.Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Scholars' Press.
      Crespo, C. J., Smit, E., Troiano, R. P., Bartlett, S. J., Macera, C. A., and Andersen, R. E.Televisionwatching, energy intake, and obesity in U.S. children: Results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994.Archives of Pediatricand Adolescent Medicine155360–365(2001)
      Cromley, E. K.(2002). GIS and Public Health.New York: Guilford.
      Cronin-Stubbs, D., Mendes de Leon, C. F., Beckett, L. A., Field, T. S., Glynn, R. J., and Evans, D. A.Six-year effect of depressive symptoms on the course of physical disability in community-living older adults.Archives of Internal Medicine1603074–3080(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.20.3074
      Cruess, D. G., Leserman, J., Petitto, J. M., Golden, R. N., Szuba, M. P., Morrison, M. F., and Evans, D. L.Psychosocial-immune relationships in HIV disease.Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry6241–251(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/scnp.2001.26996
      Cutrona, C. E., and Russell, D. W.(1990). Type of social sup-port and specific stress: Toward a theory of optimalmatching. In B. R.Sarason, and I. G.Sarason, and G. R.Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view.New York: John Wiley.
      Dabelea, D., Pettitt, D. J., Jones, K. L., and Arsianian, S. A.Type 2 diabetes mellitus in minority childrenand adolescents: An emerging problem.Endocrinologyand Metabolism Clinics of North America28709–729(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0889-8529%2805%2970098-0
      da Costa, I. G., Rapoff, M. A., Lemanek, K., and Goldstein, G. L.Improving adherence to medication regimensfor children with asthma and its effects on clinical out-come.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis30687–691(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1997.30-687
      Dannenberg, A. L., Gielen, A. C., Beilenson, P. L., Wilson, M. H., and Joffe, A.Bicycle helmet laws and edu-cational campaigns: An evaluation of strategies toincrease children's helmet use.American Journal of Public Health83667–674(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.83.5.667
      Danner, D. D., Snowden, D. A., and Friesen, W. V.Positive emotions in early life and longevity: Findingsfrom the Nun Study.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology80801–813(2001)
      Dantzer, R.Cytokine-induced sickness behavior: Mechanisms and implications.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences933222–234(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05827.x
      The Dartmouth atlas of health care. (2002).Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences, Dartmouth Medical School. Chicago: American Hospital Publishing.
      Darwin, C.(1965). The expression of emotions in man andanimals.Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(Original work published 1872)
      D'Atri, D. A., Fitzgerald, E. F., Kasl, S. K., and Ostfeld, A. M.Crowding in prison: The relationshipbetween changes in housing mode and blood pressure.Psychosomatic Medicine4395–105(1981)
      Dautzenberg, M. G., Diederiks, J. P., Philipsen, H., and Tan, F. E.Multigenerational caregiving and well-being: Distress of middle-aged daughters providing assistance toelderly parents.Women and Health2957–74(1999)
      Davidson, K. W., Goldstein, M., Kaplan, R. M., Kaufmann, P. G., Knatterud, G. L., and Orleans, C. T., et al. (in press). Evidence-based behavioral medicine: What is it, andhow do we achieve it?Annals of Behavioral Medicine.
      Davidson, L. L., Durkin, M. S., Kuhn, L., O'Connor, P., Barlow, B., and Heagarty, M. C.The impact of the Safe Kids/Healthy Neighborhoods Injury Prevention Program in Harlem, 1988 through 1991.American Journal of Public Health84580–586(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.84.4.580
      Davidson, R. J.Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity.American Psychologist551196–1214(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.11.1196
      Davison, G. C.Being bolder with the Bouldermodel: The challenge of education and training inempirically supported treatments.Journal of Consultingand Clinical Psychology66(1)163–167(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.1.163
      Davis, C. G., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., and Larson, J.Making sense of loss and benefiting from experience: Two construals of meaning.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology75561–574(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.561
      Davison, K. P., Pennebaker, J. W., and Dickerson, K. P.Who talks? The social psychology of illnesssupport groups.American Psychologist55(2)205–217(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.2.205
      DeBusk, R. F., Miller, N. H., Superko, H. R., Dennis, C. A., Thomas, R. J., Lew, H. T., Berger, W. E., III, Heller, R. S., Rompf, J., Gee, D., Kraemer, H. C., Bandura, A., Ghandour, G., Clark, M., Shah, R. V., Fisher, L., and Taylor, C. B.A case-management system forcoronary risk factor modification after acute myocar-dial infarction.Annals of Internal Medicine120721–729(1994)
      de Groot, M., Anderson, R., Freedland, K. E., Clouse, R. E., and Lustman, P. J.Association of depression anddiabetes complications: A meta-analysis.Psychosomatic Medicine63619–630(2001)
      DeJong, W., and Hingson, R.Strategies to reducedriving under the influence of alcohol.Annual Review of Public Health19359–378(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.19.1.359
      DeJoy, D., and Southern, D.An integrative perspective on worksite health promotion.Journal of Medicine351221–1230(1993)
      deKoning, K., and Martin, M. (Eds.). (1996). Participatoryresearch in health: Issues and experiences.London: Zed Books.
      dela Cruz, F. A., Padilla, G. V., and Butts, E.Validating a short acculturation scale for Filipino-Americans.Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners10453–460(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.1998.tb00470.x
      Delahanty, D. L., and Dougall, A. L., and Baum, A.(2000). Neuroendocrine and immune alterations following naturaldisasters and traumatic stress. In R.Ader, and D. L.Felten, and N.Cohen (Eds.), Psychoneuroimmunology: Vol. 2 (3rd ed., pp. 335–345).San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      Delamater, A. M., Jacobson, A. M., Anderson, B., Cox, D., Fisher, L., and Lustman, P. et al. Psychosocialtherapies in diabetes: Report of the Psychosocial Therapies Working Group.Diabetes Care241286–1292(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.24.7.1286
      Dember, W. N., Martin, S., Hummer, M. K., Howe, S., and Melton, R.The measurement of optimism andpessimism.Current Psychology: Research and Reviews8102–119(1989)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02686675
      Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Williams, R. B., Haney, T. L., and Blumenthal, J.Components of Type A, hostility, and anger-in: Relationship to angio-graphic findings.Psychosomatic Medicine47219–233(1985)
      De Meyer, G. R. Y., and Herman, A. G.Vascularendothelial dysfunction.Progress in Cardiovascular Disease34325–342(1997)
      Demitrack, M.Chronic fatigue syndrome andfibromyalgia: Dilemmas in diagnosis and clinical manage-ment.Psychiatric Clinics of North America21671–692(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0193-953X%2805%2970031-9
      Demitrack, M. A., and Crofford, L. J.Evidence forand pathophysiologic implications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in fibromyalgia andchronic fatigue syndrome.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences840684–697(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09607.x
      Dennis, M., O'Rourke, S., Slattery, J., Staniforth, T., and Warlow, C.Evaluation of a stroke family careworker: Results of a randomised controlled trial.British Medical Journal3141071–1076(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7087.1071
      Derogatis, L. R.(1983). SCL-90-R administration, scoring, and procedures manual-II.Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research.
      Derr, J., Forst, L., Yun Chen, H., and Conroy, L.Fatal falls in the construction industry, 1990–1999.Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine43853–860(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00043764-200110000-00004
      DeRubeis, R. J., Gelfand, L. A., Tang, T. Z., and Simons, A. D.Medication versus cognitive behavioraltherapy for severely depressed outpatients: Mega-analysisof four randomized comparisons.American Journal of Psychiatry1561007–1013(1999)
      Desbiens, N. A., Mueller-Rizner, N., Virnig, B., and Lynn, J.Stress in caregivers of hospitalized oldest-oldpatients.Journal of Gerontology56M231–M235(2001)
      DeWalt, K., and DeWalt, B.(2002). Participant observation: A guide for fieldworkers.Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira.
      DiClemente, C., Prochaska, J., Fairhurst, S., Velicer, W., Velasquez, M., and Rossi, J.The process of smoking cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contem-plation, and preparation stages of change.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology59(2)295–304(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.2.295
      Diener, E., and Seligman, M. E. P.Very happypeople.Psychological Science1381–84(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00415
      Dietz, W. H., and Gortmaker, S. L.Preventing obe-sity in children and adolescents.Annual Review of Public Health22237–253(2001)
      Diez Roux, A. V.Investigating neighborhood andarea effects on health.American Journal of Public Health911783–1789(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.91.11.1783
      Diez Roux, A. V., Merkin, S. S., Arnett, D., Chambless, L., Massing, M., and Nieto, F. J. et al. Neighborhood ofresidence and incidence of coronary heart disease.New England Journal of Medicine34599–106(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200107123450205
      DiGuiseppi, C., and Roberts, I. G.Individual-levelinjury prevention strategies in the clinical setting.Future of Children10(1)53–82(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602825
      DiGuiseppi, C. G., Rivara, F. P., Koepsell, T. D., and Polissar, L.Bicycle helmet use by children: Evaluation ofa community-wide helmet campaign.Journal of the American Medical Association2622256–2261(1989)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03430160078034
      Dijkstra, A., and De Vries, H.The development of computer-generated tailored interventions.Patient Education and Counseling36193–203(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0738-3991%2898%2900135-9
      Dilworth-Anderson, P., and Anderson, N. B.(1994). Dementia caregiving in Blacks: A contextual approachto research. In B.Lebowitz, and E.Light, and G.Neiderehe (Eds.), Mental and physical health of Alzheimer's care-givers (pp. 385–409).New York: Springer.
      Dilworth-Anderson, P., Williams, I. C., and Gibson, B. E.Issues of race, ethnicity, and culture in caregiving research: A 20-year review (1980–2000).Gerontologist42237–272(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/42.2.237
      DiMatteo, M. R.The role of the doctor in theemerging health care environment.Western Journal of Medicine168328–333(1998)
      DiMatteo, M. R., and Martin, L. R.(2002). Health psychol-ogy.Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
      DiMatteo, M. R., Reiter, R. C., and Gambone, J. C.Enhancing medication adherence through communication and informed collaborative choice.Health Communication6253–265(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0604_2
      Dion, K. L.The social psychology of perceivedprejudice and discrimination.Canadian Psychology43(1)1–10(2001)
      Dishion, T. J., and Andrews, D. W.Preventing esca-lation in problem behaviors with high risk young ado-lescents: Immediate and 1-year outcomes.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology63538–548(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.4.538
      Djeddah, C., Facchin, P., Ranzato, C., and Romer, C.Child abuse: Current problems and key public healthchallenges.Social Science & Medicine51905–915(2000)
      Dobkin, P. L., Da Costa, D., Lawrence, J., Fortin, P. R., Edworthy, S., Barr, S., Ensworth, S., Esfaile, J. M., Beaulieu, A., Zummer, M., Senecal, J. L., Goulet, J. R., Choquette, D., Rich, E., Smith, D., Cividino, A., Gladman, D., St. Pierre, Y., and Clarke, A. W.Counterbalancing patient demands with evidence: Results from a Pan-Canadian randomized clinical trialof brief supportive-expressive group psychotherapy forwomen with systemic lupus erythematosus.Annals of Behavioral Medicine2488–99(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15324796ABM2402_05
      Dobson, K. S.A meta-analysis of the efficacy of cognitive therapy for depression.Journal of Consultingand Clinical Psychology57414–419(1989)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.3.414
      Doka, K. J.(1989). Disenfranchised grief: Recognizing hid-den sorrow.New York and Toronto: Lexington Books.
      Doll, R., and Peto, R.The causes of cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.Journal of the National Cancer Institute661191–1308(1981)
      Doll, R., Peto, R., Wheatley, K., Gray, R., and Sutherland, I.Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years obser-vations on male British doctors.BMJ309901–911(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.309.6959.901
      Domar, A. D., Clapp, D., Slawsby, E., Kessel, B., Orav, J., and Freizinger, M.The impact of group psycho-logical interventions on distress in infertile women.Health Psychology19568–575(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.19.6.568
      Donald, A.Evidence-based medicine: Key con-cepts.Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal7(2)1–6(2002)
      Donatelle, R., Prows, S. L., Champeau, D., and Hudson, L. D.Randomized controlled trial using social support and financial incentives for high-risk pregnantsmokers: The Significant-Other Supporter (SOS) program.Tobacco Control9(Suppl. 3)III67–III69(2000)
      Donohew, L., and Sypher, H. E., and Bukowski, W. J.(1991). Persuasive communication and drug abuse prevention.Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Douglas, J. C.the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group.Management of high bloodpressure in African Americans: Consensus statement ofthe Hypertension in African Americans Working Groupof the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks.Archives of Internal Medicine163525–541(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.5.525
      Dressler, W. W.Social support, lifestyle incon-gruity, and arterial blood pressure in a southern Blackcommunity.Psychosomatic Medicine53608–620(1991)
      Dressler, W. W.(1993). Social and cultural dimensions of hypertension in Blacks: Underlying mechanisms. In J. G.Douglas, and J. C. S.Fray (Eds.), Pathophysiology of hypertension in Blacks (pp. 69–89).New York: Oxford University Press.
      Dressler, W. W.Modernization, stress and bloodpressure: New directions in research.Human Biology71583–605(1999)
      Dressler, W. W., and Bindon, J. R.The health conse-quences of cultural consonance: Cultural dimensions oflifestyle, social support and arterial blood pressure in an African American community.American Anthropologist102244–260(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.2000.102.issue-2
      Drolet, G., Dumont, E. C., Gosselin, I., Kinkead, R., Laforest, S., and Trottier, J. F.Role of endogenousopioid system in the regulation of the stress response.Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry4729–741(2001)
      Drossman, D. A.Do psychosocial factors definesymptom severity and patient status in irritable bowelsyndrome?American Journal of Medicine10741S–50S(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343%2899%2900081-9
      Drossman, D. A., Creed, F. H., Olden, K. W., Svedund, J., Toner, B. B., and Whitehead, W. EPsychosocialaspects of the functional gastrointestinal disorders.Gut45(Suppl. 2)II25-II30(1999)
      Drummond, D. C., Tiffany, S. T., and Glautier, S., and Remington, B. (Eds.). (1995). Addictive behaviour: Cue exposuretheory and practice.Chichester, UK: Wiley.
      Druss, B. G., and Rosenheck, R. A.Associationbetween use of unconventional therapies and conventional medical services.Journal of the American Medical Association282651–656(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.7.651
      Dunbar-Jacob, J., Erlen, J. A., Schlenk, E., Ryan, C., and Sereika, S., and Doswell, E.(2000). Adherence in chronicdisease. In J.Fitzpatrick, and J.Goeppinger (Eds.), Annualreview of nursing research (Vol. 18, pp. 48–90).New York: Springer.
      Dunbar-Jacob, J., Sereika, S., and Rohay, J., and Burke, L.(1998). Electronic methods in assessing adherence tomedical regimens. In D.Krantz, and A.Baum (Eds.), Technology and methods in behavioral medicine (pp. 95–113).Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Dunham, J. (Ed.). (2001). Stress in the workplace: Past, present and future.London: Whurr.
      Dunkel Schetter, C., Gurung, R. A., and Lobel, M., and Wadhwa, P.(2000). Stress processes in pregnancy and birth: Psychological, biological, and sociocultural influences. In A.Baum, and T.Revenson, and J.Singer (Eds.), Handbookof health psychology.Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Dunkel-Schetter, C.Maternal stress and pretermdelivery.Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine339–42(1998)
      Dusenbury, L., and Falco, M.Eleven components ofeffective drug abuse prevention curricula.Journal of School Health65420–425(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josh.1995.65.issue-10
      Dusseldorp, E., Van Elderen, T., Maes, S., Meulman, J., and Kraaij, V.A meta-analysis of psychoeducationalprograms for coronary heart disease.Health Psychology18506–519(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.18.5.506
      Dzewaltowski, D. A., Estabrooks, P. A., and Johnston, J. A.Healthy Youth Places promoting nutrition andphysical activity.Health Education Research: Theoryand Practice17541–551(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/17.5.541
      Eakin, J. M.(1997). Work-related determinants of healthbehavior. In D. S.Gochman (Ed.), Handbook of healthbehavior research, I: Personal and social determinants (pp. 337–357).New York: Plenum.
      Ebbeling, C. B., Pawlak, D. B., and Ludwig, D. S.Childhood obesity: Public health crisis, common sensecure.Lancet360473–482(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2802%2909678-2
      Ebrahim, S., and Smith, G. D.Lowering blood pres-sure: A systematic review of sustained effects of non-pharmacological interventions.Journal of Public Health Medicine20(4)441–448(1998)
      Eckenrode, J. E., and Wethington, E.(1990). The process andoutcome of mobilizing social support. In S.Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships and social support (pp. 83–103).Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
      EDK Associates.(1994). Women and sexually transmitteddiseases: The danger of denial.New York: Author.
      EDK Associates.(1995). The ABCs of STDs.New York: Author.
      Edwards, C. L., Fillingim, R. B., and Keefe, F.Race, ethnicity and pain.Pain94133–137(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959%2801%2900408-0
      Edwards, R. R., Doley, D. M., Fillingim, R. B., and Lowery, D.Ethnic differences in pain tolerance: Clinical implications in a chronic pain population.PsychosomaticMedicine63(2)316–323(2001)
      Eisenberg, D. M., Davis, R. B., Ettner, S. L., Appel, S., Wilkey, S., and Rompay, M. V. et al. Trends inalternative medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997: Results of a follow-up national survey.Journal of the American Medical Association2801569–1575(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.18.1569
      Eisenberg, D. M., Kessler, R. C., Foster, C., Norlock, F. E., Calkins, D. R., and Delbanco, T. L.Unconventional medicine in the United States: Prevalence, costs, and patterns of use.New EnglandJournal of Medicine328246–252(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199301283280406
      Elkin, I., Shea, M. T., Watkins, J. T., Imber, S. D., Sotsky, S. M., and Collins, J. F. et al. National Institute of Mental Health treatment of collaborative research pro-gram: General effectiveness of treatments.Archives of General Psychiatry46971–982(1989)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810110013002
      Elliott, A. M., Smith, B. H., Penny, K. I., Smith, W. C., and Chambers, W. A.The epidemiology of chronicpain in the community.Lancet354(9186)1248–1252(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2899%2903057-3
      Elliott, D. S. (Ed.). (1997). Blueprints for violence prevention.Boulder: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, University of Colorado.
      Ellison, C. G., and Levin, J. S.The religion-healthconnection: Evidence, theory, and future directions.Health Education and Behavior25700–720(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819802500603
      Elo, I. T., and Preston, S. H.Educational differentialsin mortality: United States, 1979–85.Social Science andMedicine42(1)47–57(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2895%2900062-3
      Emery, C. F., Schein, R. L., Hauck, E. R., and MacIntyre, N. R.Psychological and cognitive outcomes of arandomized trial of exercise among patients withchronic obstructive pulmonary disease.HealthPsychology17232–240(1998)
      Emmons, K. M., and Rollnick, S.Motivational inter-viewing in health care settings: Opportunities and limi-tations.American Journal of Preventive Medicine2068–74(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2800%2900254-3
      Engel, G. L.The need for a new medical model: Achallenge for biomedicine.Science196129–136(1977)http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.847460
      Enzlin, P., Mathieu, C., and Demyttenaere, K.Gender differences in the psychological adjustment toType 1 diabetes mellitus: An explorative study.PatientEducation & Counseling48139–145(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0738-3991%2802%2900009-5
      Epstein, J. A., Botvin, G. J., and Diaz, T.Linguisticacculturation and gender effects on smoking amongHispanic youth.Preventive Medicine27583–589(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1998.0329
      Epstein, L. H., Myers, M. D., Raynor, H. A., and Saelens, B. E.Treatment of pediatric obesity.Pediatrics101(3, Pt. 2)554–570(1998)
      Erfurt, J. C., Foote, A., and Heirich, M. A.Worksitewellness programs: Incremental comparison of screening and referral alone, health education, follow-up counseling, and plant organization.American Journal of Health Promotion5438–449(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-5.6.438
      Eriksson, J., Taimela, S., and Koivisto, V. A.Exerciseand the metabolic syndrome.Diabetologia40125–135(1997)
      Erlen, J. A., and Mellors, M. P.Adherence to combination therapy in persons living with HIV: Balancing thehardships and the blessings.Journal of the Associationof Nurses in AIDS Care10(4)75–84(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-3290%2806%2960312-9
      Ernst, J. M., and Cacioppo, J. T.Lonely hearts: Psychological perspectives on loneliness.Applied andPreventive Psychology81–22(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849%2899%2980008-0
      Estrada, C. A., Isen, A. M., and Young, M. J.Positiveaffect facilitates integration of information and decreasesanchoring in reasoning among physicians.OrganizationalBehavioral and Human Decision Processes77117–136(1997)
      EuroQol Group.EuroQol: A new facility for themeasurement of health-related quality of life.HealthPolicy16199–208(1990)
      Evans, G. W.(2001). Environmental stress and health. In A.Baum, and T.Revenson, and J. E.Singer (Eds.), Handbook of health psychology (pp. 365–385).Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Evans, G. W., and Cohen, S.(1987). Environmental stress. In D.Stokols, and I.Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environ-mental psychology (pp. 571–610).New York: John Wiley.
      Evans, G. W., and Kantrowitz, E.Socioeconomic sta-tus and health: The potential role of environmental riskexposure.Annual Review of Public Health23303–331(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.23.112001.112349
      Evans, R. L., Connis, R. T., Bishop, D. S., Hendricks, R. D., and Haselkorn, J. K.Stroke: A family dilemma.Disability and Rehabilitation16110–118(1994)
      Everson, S., Goldberg, D., Kaplan, G., Julkunen, J., and Salanen, J.Anger expression and incidenthypertension.Psychosomatic Medicine60730–735(1998)
      Everson, S. A., Goldberg, D. E., Kaplan, G. A., Cohen, R. D., Pukkala, E., Tuomilehto, J., and Salonen, J. T.Hopelessness and risk of mortality and incidence of myocardial infarction and cancer.PsychosomaticMedicine58113–121(1996)
      Everson, S. A., Kaplan, G. A., Goldberg, D. E., and Salonen, J. T.Anticipatory blood pressure response toexercise predicts future high blood pressure in middle-agedmen.Hypertension271059–1064(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.27.5.1059
      Everson, S. A., McKey, B. S., and Lovallo, W. R.Effect of trait hostility on cardiovascular responses toharassment in young men.International Journal of Behavioral Medicine2172–191(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm0202_6
      Ewart, C. K.Social action theory for a public healthpsychology.American Psychologist46931–946(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.46.9.931
      Ewart, C. K.(2003). How integrative theory building canimprove health promotion and disease prevention. In R. G.Frank, and J.Wallander, and A.Baum (Eds.), Modelsand perspectives in health psychology.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Ewart, C. K., and Suchday, S.Discovering how urbanpoverty and violence affect health: Developmentand validation of a neighborhood stress index.HealthPsychology21(3)254–262(2002)
      Fagerstrom, K.Towards better diagnoses and moreindividual treatment of tobacco dependence. Specialissue: Future directions in tobacco research.Brit JAddiction86(5)543–547(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.1991.86.issue-5
      Fairburn, C. G., and Brownell, K. D. (Eds.). (2002). Eatingdisorders and obesity: A comprehensive handbook (2nd ed.).New York: Guilford.
      Fairey, A. S., Courneya, K. S., Field, C. J., and Mackey, J. R.Physical exercise and immune system functionin cancer survivors: A comprehensive review and futuredirections.Cancer94539–551(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.v94:2
      Fardy, P. S., White, R. E., Haltiwanger-Schmitz, K., Magel, J. R., McDermott, K. J., and Clark, L. T. et al. Coronary disease risk factor reduction and behaviormodification in minority adolescents: The PATH pro-gram.Journal of Adolescent Health18247–253(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1054-139X%2895%2900283-X
      Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A., Taylor, C. B., Haskell, W. L., and Williams, P. T. et al. Effectsof communitywide education on cardiovasculardisease risk factors: The Stanford Five-City Project.Journal of the American Medical Association264359–365(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1990.03450030083037
      Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., Maccoby, N., Haskell, W. L., Williams, P. T., and Flora, J. et al. The StanfordFive-City Project: Design and methods.AmericanJournal of Epidemiology122323–334(1985)
      Farran, C. J., Miller, B. H., Kaufman, J. E., and Davis, L.Race, finding meaning, and caregiver distress.Journal of Aging and Health9316–333(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089826439700900303
      Fawzy, F. I., Cousins, N., Fawzy, N. W., Kemeny, M. E., Elashoff, R., and Morton, D.A structured psychi-atric intervention for cancer patients: I. Changes overtime in methods of coping and affective disturbance.Archives of General Psychiatry47720–725(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1990.01810200028004
      Fazio, R. H.(1990). Multiple processes by which attitudesguide behavior: The MODE model as an integrativeframework. In M. P.Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experi-mental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 75–109).SanDiego, CA: Academic Press.
      Feldman Barrett, L., and Barrett, D. J.An introductionto computerized experience sampling in psychology.Social Science Computer Review19175–185(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089443930101900204
      Feldman, L.(2001). Gender roles, role quality and healthin Venezuelan working women. In S. P.Wamala, and Lynch (Eds.), Gender and social inequities in health: Apublic health issue.Lund, Sweden: Studentlitteratur.
      Ferber, R.(1985). Solve your children's sleep problems.New York: Simon & Schuster.
      Ferguson, S. A., Leaf, W. A., Williams, A. F., and Preusser, D. F.Differences in young driver crash involve-ment in states with varying licensure practices.AccidentAnalysis and Prevention28171–180(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-4575%2895%2900051-8
      Fernandez, E., and Turk, D. C.The utility of cognitive coping strategies for altering pain perception: Ameta-analysis.Pain38(2)123–135(1989)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959%2889%2990230-3
      Feuerstein, M., and Labbe, E. E., and Kuczmierczyk, A. R.(1986). Health psychology: A psychobiological perspective.New York: Plenum.
      Fields, H. L., and Basbaum, A. I.(1999). Central nervoussystem mechanisms of pain modulation. In P. D.Wall, and R.Melzack (Eds.), Textbook of pain (pp. 309–329).Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
      Finch, B., Kolody, B., and Vega, W.Perceived dis-crimination and depression among Mexican-originadults in California.Journal of Health & SocialBehavior41295–313(2000)
      Fiore, M., Bailey, W., Cohen, S., Dorfman, S., Goldstein, M., Gritz, E., Heyman, R., Holbrook, J., Jaen, C., Kottke, T., Lando, H., Mecklenburg, R., Mullen, P., Nett, L., Robinson, L., Stitzer, M., Tommasello, A., and Villejo, L., and Wewers, M.(2000, June). Treatingtobacco use and dependence [Clinical practice guideline].Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
      First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., and Gibbon, M., and Williams, J. B. W.(1996). User's guide for structured clinical inter-view for DSM-IV Axis I disorders: SCID-I clinicianversion.Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
      Fischer, C. S., Jackson, R. M., Steuve, C. A., Gerson, K., and Jones, L. M., and Baldassare, M.(1977). Networks andplaces.New York: Free Press.
      Fishbein, M.An investigation of the relationshipsbetween beliefs about an object and the attitude towardthat object.Human Relations16233–240(1963)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872676301600302
      Fishbein, M.(1997). Theoretical models of HIV prevention.NIH Consensus Development Conference: Interventionsto prevent HIV risk behaviors [Program and Abstr-acts].Bethesda, MD:National Institutes of Health.
      Fishbein, M.The role of theory in HIV prevention.AIDS Care12273–278(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540120050042918
      Fishbein, M., and Ajzen, I.(1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research.Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
      Fishbein, M., Bandura, A., Triandis, H. C., Kanfer, F. H., Becker, M. H., and Middlestadt, S. E., and Eichler, A.(1992). Factors influencing behavior and behavior change: Final report—Theorist's workshop.Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.
      Fishbein, M., and Middlestadt, S. E., and Hitchcock, P. J.(1991). Using information to change sexually transmitteddiseases-related behaviors: An analysis based on thetheory of reasoned action. In N. J.Wasserheti, and S. O.Aral, and K. K.Holmes (Eds.), Research issues in human behav-ior and sexually transmitted diseases in the AIDS era.Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
      Fisher, J. D., Nadler, A., and Whitcher-Alagna, S.Recipient reactions to aid.Psychological Bulletin9127–54(1982)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.1.27
      Fisher, R. A.(1935). The design of experiments.Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.
      Fitzpatrick, R., Davey, C., Buxton, M., and Jones, D.Evaluating patient-based outcome measures for use inclinical trials.Health Technology Assessment21–74(1998)
      Fitzpatrick, T. R.Bereavement events amongelderly men: The effects of stress and health.Journal of Applied Gerontology17204–228(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/073346489801700209
      Fitzpatrick, T. R., Spiro, A., III, Kressin, N. R., Greene, E., and Bossé, R.Leisure activities, stress, and well-being among bereaved and non-bereaved elderly men: The normative aging study.OMEGA43217–245(2001)
      Fix, M., and Struyk, R. J.(1993). Clear and convincing evi-dence: Measurement of discrimination in America.Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
      Flay, B.Positive youth development requires com-prehensive health promotion programs.AmericanJournal of Health Behavior26407–424(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.26.6.2
      Flay, B. R.Understanding environmental, situationaland intrapersonal risk and protective factors for youthtobacco use: The theory of triadic influence.DiscussantComments. Nicotine & Tobacco Research1S111–S114(1999)
      Flay, B. R., and Petraitis, J.(1994). The theory of triadicinfluence: A new theory of health behavior with implications for preventive interventions. In G. S.Albrecht (Ed.), Advances in medical sociology: Vol. 4. A recon-sideration of models of health behavior change (pp. 19–44).Greenwich, CT: JAI.
      Flay, B. R., and Petraitis, J., and Hu, F.(1995). The theory of tri-adic influence: Preliminary evidence related to alcoholand tobacco use. In J. B.Fertig, and J. P.Allen (Eds.), NIAAA research monograph: Alcohol and tobacco: From basic science to clinical practice (pp. 37–57).Bethesda, MD: Government Printing Office.
      Flay, B. R., Petraitis, J., and Hu, F. B.Psychosocialrisk and protective factors for adolescent tobacco use.Nicotine & Tobacco Research1S59–S65(1999)
      Fletcher, G. F., Balady, G. J., Amsterdam, E. A., and Chaitman, B. et al. Exercise standards for testing and training. Astatement for healthcare professionals from the AmericanHeart Association.Circulation1041694–1740(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/hc3901.095960
      Fletcher, G. F., Balady, G., Blair, S. N., and Blumenthal, J. et al. Statement on exercise: benefits and recom-mendations for physical activity programs for allAmericans.Circulation94857–862(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.94.4.857
      Flor, H., Turk, D. C., and Scholz, O. B.Impact of chronic pain on the spouse: Marital, emotional andphysical consequences.Journal of PsychosomaticResearch31(1)63–71(1987)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2887%2990099-7
      Foerster, S. B., Kizer, K. W., DiSogra, L. K., Bal, D. G., Krieg, B. F., and Bunch, K. L.California's 5 aDay—for Better Health! campaign: An innovative population-based effort to effect large-scale dietary change.American Journal of Preventive Medicine11(2)124–131(1995)
      Folkman, S.Positive psychological states and coping with severe stress.Social Science and Medicine451207–1221(1997)
      Folkman, S., and Lazarus, R. S.(1988). The Ways of Coping.Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden.
      Folkman, S., and Moskowitz, J. T.Positive affect andthe other side of coping.American Psychologist55647–654(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.6.647
      Foner, N.(2000). Anthropology and the study of immigration. In N.Foner, and R. G.Rumbaut, and S. G.Gold (Eds.), Immigration research for a new century: Multidis-ciplinary perspectives (pp. 49–53).New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
      Fontana, A., and Frey, J. H.(1994). Interviewing: The art of science. In N.Denzin, and Y.Lincoln (Eds.), The hand-book of qualitative research (pp. 361–376).ThousandOaks, CA: Sage.
      Ford, D. E.Managing patients with depression: Isprimary care up to the challenge?Journal of GeneralInternal Medicine15344–345(2000)
      Ford, D. E., Mead, L. A., Chang, P. P., Cooper-Patrick, L., Wang, N. Y., and Klag, M. J.Depression is a riskfactor for coronary artery disease in men.Archives of Internal Medicine1581422–1426(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.158.13.1422
      Ford, E. S., Giles, W. H., and Dietz, W. H.Prevalenceof the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Journal of the American Medical Association287356–359(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.287.3.356
      Forster, J. L., Murray, D., Wolfson, M., Blaine, T., Wagenaar, A., and Hennrikus, D.The effectsof community policies to reduce youth accessto tobacco.American Journal of Public Health881193–1198(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.8.1193
      Fos, P. J., and Fine, D. J.(1998). Designing health care forpopulations: Applied epidemiology in health careadministration.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Foxx, R., and Brown, R.Nicotine fading and self-monitoring for cigarette abstinence or controlled smoking.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis12111–125(1979)http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1979.12-111
      France, K. G., and Hudson, S. M.Behavior manage-ment of infant sleep disturbance.Journal of AppliedBehavior Analysis2391–98(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1990.23-91
      Frank, E., and Thase, M. E.Natural history and preventive treatment of recurrent mood disorders.AnnualReview of Medicine50453–468(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.50.1.453
      Frankenhaeuser, M., Lundberg, U., Fredrikson, M., Melin, B., Toumisto, M., Myrsten, A. L., Hedman, M., Bergman-Losman, B., and Wallin, L.Stress onand off the job as related to sex and occupational statusin white-collar workers.Journal of OrganizationalBehavior10321–346(1989)
      Franklin, C., and Corcoran, J.Preventing adolescent pregnancy: A review of programs and practices.SocialWork45(1)40–52(1999)
      Franklin, C., and Corcoran, J., and Harris, M. B.(in press). Risk, protective factors, and effective interventions for adolescent pregnancy. In M. W.Fraser (Ed.), Risk and resilience in childhood and adolescents (2nd ed.).Washington, DC: NASW Press.
      Franklin, C., Grant, D., Corcoran, J., O'Dell, P., and Bultman, L.Effectiveness of prevention programs for adolescent pregnancy: A meta-analysis.Journal of Marriage and the Family59(3)551–567(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353945
      Franklin, S. S., Khan, S. A., Wong, N. D., Larson, M. G., and Levy, D.Is pulse pressure useful in predictingrisk for coronary heart disease? The Framingham HeartStudy.Circulation100354–360(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.100.4.354
      Franzini, L., Ribble, J. C., and Keddie, A. M.Understanding the Hispanic paradox.Ethnicity & Disease11496–518(2001)
      Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F., and Talajic, M.Depression and 18-month prognosis after myocardialinfarction.Circulation91999–1005(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.91.4.999
      Fredman, L., and Daly, M. P.Weight change.Journalof Aging & Health943–70(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089826439700900103
      Fredrickson, B. L.What good are positive emotions?Review of General Psychology: New Directionsin Research on Emotion2[Special Issue]300–319(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.300
      Fredrickson, B. L.(2000). Cultivating positive emotions tooptimize health and well-being. Prevention and Treatment, 3. Retrieved from http://journals.apa.org/prevention
      Fredrickson, B. L.The role of positive emotions inpositive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions.American Psychologist56[SpecialIssue]218–226(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218
      Fredrickson, B. L., and Branigan, C. A.(2002). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-actionrepertoires: Evidence for the broaden-and-build theory.Manuscript submitted for publication.
      Fredrickson, B. L., and Joiner, T.Positive emotionstrigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being.Psychological Science13172–175(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00431
      Fredrickson, B. L., and Levenson, R. W.Positiveemotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions.Cognition and Emotion12191–220(1998)
      Fredrickson, B. L., Mancuso, R. A., Branigan, C., and Tugade, M. M.The undoing effect of positiveemotions.Motivation and Emotion24237–258(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010796329158
      Fredrickson, B. L., Maynard, K. E., Helms, M. J., Haney, T. L., Siegler, I. C., and Barefoot, J. C.Hostility predicts magnitude and duration of blood pressure responseto anger.Journal of Behavioral Medicine23229–243(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005596208324
      Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., and Waugh, C. E., and Larkin, G.(2002). What good are positive emotions in crises? Aprospective study of resilience and emotions followingthe terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001.Manuscript submitted for publication.
      Freedman, R. R.Physiological mechanisms oftemperature biofeedback.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation1695–115(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01000184
      Freud, S.(1917). Mourning and melancholia (Standard ed., Vol. 14).New York: W. W. Norton.
      Freud, S.(1924). Collected papers (Vol. 1).London: Hogarth.
      Freud, S.(1936). The problem of anxiety.New York: W. W. Norton.
      Freud, S.(1959). Why war? In J.Strachey (Ed.), Collectedpapers (Vol. 5).London: Hogarth.(Original workpublished 1933)
      Fried, L., and Walston, J.(1999). Frailty and failure to thrive. In W.Hazzard, J.Blass, W.Ettinger, and J.Halter, and J.Ouslander (Eds.), Principles of geriatric medicine and gerontology (pp. 1387–1402).New York: McGraw-Hill.
      Friedberg, F., and Jason, L. A.(1998). Understanding chronic fatigue syndrome: An empirical guide to assess-ment and treatment.Washington, DC: AmericanPsychological Association.
      Friedman, M., and Ghandour, G.Medical diagnosis of Type A behavior.American Heart Journal126607–618(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703%2893%2990411-2
      Friedman, M., and Rosenman, R. H.Type A behavior pattern: Its association with coronary heart disease.Annals of Clinical Research3300–312(1971)
      Friedman, M., and Rosenman, R.(1974). Type A behaviorand your heart.New York: Random House.(Originalwork published 1959)
      Friedman, M., Thoresen, C. E., and Gill, J. J.Alteration of Type A behavior and its effect on cardiacrecurrences in post-myocardial infarction patients: Summary results of the Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project.American Heart Journal112653–662(1986)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703%2886%2990458-8
      Friedman, R., Schwartz, J., Schnall, P., Landsbergis, P., Pieper, C., Gerin, W., and Pickering, T.Psychological variables in hypertension: Relationship tocasual or ambulatory blood pressure in men.Psychosomatic Medicine6319–31(2001)
      Fries, J. F.(1995). Arthritis: A take care of yourself healthguide for understanding your arthritis (4th ed.).Reading, MA: Perseus.
      Frijda, N. H.(1986). The emotions.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
      Froom, P., Melamed, S., and Benbasal, J.Smokingcessation and weight gain.Journal of Family Practice46(6)460–464(1998)
      Frumkin, L. R., and Leonard, J. M.(1997). Questions andanswers on AIDS (3rd ed.).Los Angeles: HealthInformation Press.
      Fukuda, K., Straus, S. E., Hickie, I., Sharpe, M. C., Dobbins, J. G., and Komaroff, A.The chronic fatigue syndrome: A comprehensive approach to its definition andstudy.Annals of Internal Medicine121953–959(1994)
      Fuller-Jonap, F., and Haley, W.Mental and physicalhealth of male caregivers of a spouse with Alzheimer'sdisease.Journal of Aging and Health799–118(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089826439500700105
      Furnham, A.(1994). Why people choose complementarymedicine. In W.Andritzky (Ed.), Yearbook of cross-culturalmedicine and psychotherapy 1992 (pp. 165–198).Berlin, Germany: VWB—Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung.
      Gallagher, D., Wrabetz, A., Lovett, S., and Del Maestro, S., and Rose, J.(1989). Depression and other negative affects infamily caregivers. In E.Light, and B.Lebowitz (Eds.), Alzheimer's disease treatment and family stress: Futuredirections of research (pp. 218–244).Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
      Gallinelli, A., Roncaglia, R., Matteo, M. L., Ciaccio, I., Volpe, A., and Facchinetti, F.Immunologicalchanges and stress are associated with different implantation rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilizationembryo transfer.Fertility & Sterility7685–91(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0015-0282%2801%2901826-X
      Gallo, L. C., and Matthews, K. A.Understanding the association between socioeconomic status and physicalhealth: Do negative emotions play a role?Psychological Bulletin129(1)10–51(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.10
      Gasper, K., and Clore, G. L.Attending to the big picture: Mood and global versus local processing of visualinformation.Psychological Science1334–40(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00406
      Gass-Sternas, K. A.Single parent widows: Stressors, appraisal, coping, grieving responses andhealth.Marriage and Family Review20411–445(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v20n03_06
      Gatchel, R., and Turk, D. C. (Eds.). (1999). Psychologicalfactors in pain.New York: Guilford.
      Gaudry, E., Spielberger, C. D., and Vagg, P. R.Validation of the state-trait distinction in anxietyresearch.Multivariate Behavior Research10331–341(1975)http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr1003_6
      Gaugler, J. E., and Kane, R. A., and Langlois, J.(2000). Assessment of family caregivers of older adults. In R. L.Kane, and R. A.Kane (Eds.), Assessing older persons: Measures, meaning, and practical applications (pp. 320–359).New York: Oxford University Press.
      Geleziunas, R., and Greene, W. C.(1999). Molecular insightsinto HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis. In M. A.Sande, and P. A.Volberding (Eds.), The medical management of AIDS (6th ed., pp. 23–39).Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
      George, L. K., and Gwyther, L.Caregiver well-being: A multidimensional examination of family caregivers of demented adults.Gerontologist26253–259(1986)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/26.3.253
      Gerin, W., Pickering, T. G., Glynn, L., Christenfeld, N., Schwartz, A., Carroll, D., and Davidson, K.An historical context for behavioral models of hypertension.Journal of Psychosomatic Research48369–377(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999%2899%2900095-1
      Getzen, T. E.(1997). Health economics: Fundamentals andflow of funds.New York: John Wiley.
      Ghione, S.Hypertension-associated hypalgesia: Evidence in experimental animals and humans, patho-physiological mechanisms and potential clinical conse-quences.Hypertension28494–504(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.28.3.494
      Gibrar, O.The connection between the psychologi-cal condition of breast cancer patients and survival: Afollow-up after eight years.General Hospital Psychiatry18(4)266–270(1996)
      Gilchrist, V.(1992). Key informant interviews. In B. F.Crabtree, and W.Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research (pp. 70–92).Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
      Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Jaycox, L. H., and Seligman, M. E. P.Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children: Two-year follow-up.Psychological Science6343–351(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00524.x
      Gilligan, I., Fung, L., Piper, D. W., and Tennant, C.Life event stress and chronic difficulties in duodenalulcer: A case control study.Journal of PsychosomaticResearch31(1)117–123(1987)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2887%2990106-1
      Giovengo, S. L., Russell, I. J., and Larson, A. A.Increases in nerve growth factor concentrations in cere-brospinal fluid (CSF) of fibromyalgia patients [Abstract].Pain66(Suppl.)225(1996)
      Glantz, S. A., Slade, J., Bero, L. A., and Hanauer, P., and Barnes, D. E.(1996). The cigarette papers.Berkeley: University of California Press.
      Glanz, K., and Lewis, F. M., and Rimer, B. K. (Eds.). (1997). Health behavior and health education.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Glanz, K., and Rimer, L., and Lewis, F. M.(2002). Health behav-ior and health education.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Glaser, R., and Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of human stress and immunity.San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      Glaser, R., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Malarkey, W. B., and Sheridan, J. F.The influence of psychologicalstress on the immune response to vaccines.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences840649–655(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09603.x
      Glasgow, M. S., Gaarder, K. R., and Engel, B. T.Behavioral treatment of high blood pressure: II. Acuteand sustained effects of relaxation and systolic blood pressure biofeedback.Psychosomatic Medicine44(2)155–170(1982)
      Glasgow, R. E., and Eakin, E. G.(1998). Issues in diabetesself-management (2nd ed.).New York: Springer.
      Glasgow, R. E., Fisher, E. F., Anderson, B. J., La Greca, A., Marrero, D., and Johnson, S. B. et al. Behavioralscience in diabetes: Contributions and opportunities.Diabetes Care22832–843(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.22.5.832
      Glasgow, R. E., Vogt, T. M., and Boles, S. M.Evaluating the public health impact of health promotioninterventions: The RE-AIM Framework.American Journal of Public Health891322–1327(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1322
      Glass, J. M., and Park, D. C.Cognitive dysfunction infibromyalgia.Current Rheumatology Reports3123–127(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11926-001-0007-4
      Glass, T., Mendes de Leon, C., Marottoli, R., and Berkman, L.Population based study of social and productive activities as predictors of survival among elderlyAmericans.BMJ319478–483(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7208.478
      Glass, T. A., and Maddox, G. L.The qualityand quantity of social support: Stroke recovery aspsycho-social transition.Social Science & Medicine341249–1261(1992)
      Glassman, A.Cigarette smoking: Implications for psychiatric illness.American Journal of Psychiatry150546–553(1993)
      Glassman, A. H., and Shapiro, P. A.Depression andthe course of coronary artery disease.American Journalof Psychiatry1554–11(1998)
      Glavin, G. B., Murison, R., Overmier, J. B., Paré, W. P., Bakke, H. K., Henke, P. G., and Hernandez, D. E.The neurobiology of stress ulcers.Brain Research Reviews16301–343(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0173%2891%2990012-W
      Glynn, R. J., Chae, C. U., Guralnik, J. M., Taylor, J. O., and Hennekens, C. H.Pulse pressure and mortalityin older people.Archives of Internal Medicine1602765–2772(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.18.2765
      Goadsby, P. J., Lipton, R. B., and Ferrari, M. D.Migraine-current understanding and treatment.NewEngland Journal of Medicine346257–270(2002)
      Gold, M. R.(1996). Cost-effectiveness in health and medi-cine.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Goldberg, A. D., Becker, L. C., Bonsall, R., Cohen, J. D., Ketterer, M. W., Kaufman, P. G., Krantz, D. S., Light, K. C., McMahon, R. P., Noreuil, T., Pepine, C. J., Raczynski, J., Stone, P. H., Strother, D., Taylor, H., and Sheps, D. S.Ischemic, hemodynamic, and neurohormonalresponses to mental and exercise stress: Experience from the Psychophysiological Investigations of MyocardialIschemia Study (PIMI).Circulation942402–2409(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.94.10.2402
      Goldman, D. P., and Smith, J. P.Can patient self-management help explain the SES health gradient?Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America99(16)10929–10934(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.162086599
      Goldman, M. S.Boyd, G. M.Faden, V.College drinking, what it is, and what to do about it: Areview of the state of the science.Journal of Studies on AlcoholS14(2002)
      Goldman, S. L., Kraemer, D. T., and Salovey, P.Beliefs about mood moderate the relationship of stressto illness and symptom reporting.Journal of Psychosomatic Research41115–128(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2896%2900119-5
      Goldstein, H.(1995). Multilevel statistical models (2nd ed.).London: Arnold.
      Gollwitzer, P. M.Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans.American Psychologist54493–503(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.7.493
      Gonder-Frederick, L. A., Cox, D. J., and Ritterbrand, L. M.Diabetes and behavioral medicine: The seconddecade.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology70611–625(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.3.611
      Goodenough, W. H.(1963). Cooperation in change.New York: Russell Sage.
      Goodkin, K., Feaster, D. J., Asthana, D., Blaney, N. T., Kumar, M., Baldewicz, T., Tuttle, R. S, Maher, K. J., Baum, M. K., Shapshak, P., and Fletcher, M. A.Bereavement support group intervention is longitudinally associated with salutary effects on the CD4 cellcount and number of physician visits.Clinical & Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology5382–391(1998)
      Gordon, M.(1964). Assimilation in American life: The roleof race, religion, and national origins.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Gore, S.(1981). Stress-buffering functions of social supports: An appraisal and clarification of research models. In B. S.Dohrenwend, and B. P.Dohrenwend (Eds.), Stressful life events and their contexts (pp. 202–222).New York: Prodist.
      Gortmaker, S. L., Peterson, K., Wiecha, J., Sobol, A. M., Dixit, S., and Fox, M. K. et al. Reducing obesity viaa school-based interdisciplinary intervention amongyouth: Planet Health.Archives of Pediatric andAdolescent Medicine153409–418(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.153.4.409
      Gove, W. R., and Hughes, M.(1983). Overcrowding in thehousehold.New York: Academic Press.
      Gowers, S. G., and Shore, A.Development of weightand shape concerns in the aetiology of eating disorders.British Journal of Psychiatry179236–242(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.179.3.236
      Grace, G. M., Nielson, W. R., Hopkins, M., and Berg, M. A.Concentration and memory deficits in patient with fibromyalgia syndrome.Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology21477–487(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/jcen.21.4.477.876
      Grahl, C.Improving compliance: Solving a $100 billion problem.Managed Health Carepp. S11-S13(1994)
      Granovetter, M.The strength of weak ties.American Journal of Sociology781360–1380(1973)http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/225469
      Green, C. R., Baker, T. A., Smith, E. M., and Sato, T.The effect of race in older adults presenting forchronic pain management: A comparative study of African and Caucasian Americans.Journal of Pain4(2)82–90(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/jpai.2003.8
      Green, C. R., Flowe-Valencia, H., Rosenblum, L., and Tait, A. R.The role of childhood and adulthood abuseamong women presenting for chronic pain management.Clinical Journal of Pain17359–364(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002508-200112000-00011
      Green, C. R., Wheeler, J., Laporte, F., Marchant, B., and Guerrero, E.How well is chronic pain man-aged? Who does it well?Pain Medicine3(1)56–65(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-4637.2002.02003.x
      Green, L. W., George, M. A., Daniel, M., Frankish, C. J., Herbert, C. J., and Bowie, W. R., et al. (1995). Study of participatory research in health promotion.Vancouver, BC, Canada: University of British Columbia, Royal Societyof Canada.
      Green, L. W., and Kreuter, M. W.(1999). Health promotionplanning: An educational and ecological approach.Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
      Green, L. W., and Mercer, S. L.Participatory research: Can public health researchers and agencies reconcile thepush from funding bodies and the pull from communities?American Journal of Public Health911926–1929(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.91.12.1926
      Greenland, S.Basic problems in interaction assess-ment.Environmental Health Perspectives101(Suppl. 4)59–66(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.93101s459
      Greenland, S., and Brumback, B. A.An overview ofrelations among causal modelling methods.InternationalJournal of Epidemiology311030–1037(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/31.5.1030
      Greenland, S., and Morgenstern, H.Confounding inhealth research.Annual Reviews of Public Health22189–212(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.22.1.189
      Greenland, S., and Poole, C.Invariants and nonin-variants in the concept of interdependent effects.Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, andHealth14125–129(1988)http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.1945
      Greenland, S., and Robins, J. M.Identifiability, exchangeability, and epidemiological confounding.International Journal of Epidemiology15413–419(1986)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/15.3.413
      Greenland, S., Robins, J. M., and Pearl, J.Confounding and collapsibility in causal inference.Statistical Science1429–46(1999)
      Greenland, S., and Rothman, K. J.(1998). Measures of effectand measures of association. In K. J.Rothman, and S.Greenland (Eds.), Modern Epidemiology (2nd ed., Chap. 4).Philadelphia: Lippincott.
      Gross, J. J., Fredrickson, B. L., and Levenson, R. W.The psychophysiology of crying.Psychophysiology31460–468(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1994.tb01049.x
      Grossman, D. C.The history of injury control andthe epidemiology of child and adolescent injuries.Future of Children10(1)23–52(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602824
      Groves, E. R., and Ogburn, W. F.(1928). American marriageand family relationships.New York: Henry Holt.
      Gudino, A., Jr.Biopsychosocial correlates of HIV/ AIDS infected African-American males.Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering57(10-B)6572(1997)
      Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma.(1997). National asthma education and prevention program: Expert panel report II.Bethesda, MD: National Asthma Education Program, Office of Prevention, Education, and Control: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
      Gumnick, J. F., and Nemeroff, C. B.Problems with currently available antidepressants.Journal of Clinical Psychiatry61(Suppl. 10)5–15(2000)
      Guthrie, E., Creed, F., Dawson, D., and Tomenson, B.A controlled trial of psychological treatment for the irri-table bowel syndrome.Gastroenterology100450–457(1991)
      Gutin, B., and Barbeau, P.(2000). Physical activity and bodycomposition in children and adolescents. In C.Bouchard (Ed.), Physical activity and obesity (pp. 213–245).Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
      Gutmann, M. C.Ethnicity, alcohol, and acculturation.Social Science & Medicine48173–184(1999)
      Guy, W.(1976). ECDEU assessment manual of psy-chopathology—Revised (DHEW Pub. No. ADM 76–338).Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Educationand Welfare.
      Gybels, J. M., and Tasker, R. R.(1999). Central neurosurgery. In P. D.Wall, and R.Melzack (Eds.), Textbook of pain (4th ed., pp. 1307–1339).Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston.
      Haan, M. N., Shemanski, L., Jagust, W. J., Manolio, T. A., and Kuller, L.The role of APOE E4 in modulatingeffects of other risk factors for cognitive decline inelderly persons.Journal of the American Medical Association28240–46(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.1.40
      Haddon, W., Jr.On the escape of tigers: An ecologicnote.American Journal of Public Health602229–2234(1970)
      Haddon, W., Jr.A logical framework for categorizing highway safety phenomena and activity.Journal of Trauma12193–207(1972)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005373-197203000-00002
      Hahn, B. A.Marital status and women's health: The effect of economic marital acquisitions.Journal of Marriage and the Family55495–504(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352818
      Haines, A. P., Imeson, J. D., and Meade, T. W.Phobicanxiety and ischaemic heart disease.British MedicalJournal Clinical Research Ed.295(6593)297–299(1987)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.295.6593.297
      Hajat, A., and Lucas, J., and Kington, R.(2000). Health out-comes among Hispanic subgroups: United States, 1992–95.Advance data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 310. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for HealthStatistics.
      Haley, W. E., Roth, D. L., Coleton, M. I., Ford, G. R., West, C. A., Collins, R. P., and Isobe, T. L.Appraisal, coping, and social support as mediators of well-being inBlack and White family caregivers of patients withAlzheimer's disease.Journal of Consulting and ClinicalPsychology64121–129(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.1.121
      Hall, A., and Wellman, B.(1985). Social networks and socialsupport. In S.Cohen, and S. L.Syme (Eds.), Social sup-port and health (pp. 23–41).Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
      Halley, F. M.Self-regulation of the immune systemthrough biobehavioral strategies.Biofeedback & SelfRegulation1655–74(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01000446
      Hallqvist, J., Diderichsen, F., Theorell, T., Reuterwall, C., and Ahlbom, A.Is the effect of job strain due tointeraction between high psychological demand and lowdecision latitude?Social Science and Medicine461405–1411(1998)
      Hamazaki, T., Sawazaki, S., Itomura, M., Asaoka, E., Nagao, Y., Nishimura, N., Yazawa, K., Kuwamori, T., and Kobayashi, M.The effect of docosahexaenoicacid on aggression in young adults: A placebo-controlled double-blind study.Journal of Clinical Investigation971129–1133(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI118507
      Hamburg, D. A., and Adams, J. E.A perspective oncoping behavior: Seeking and utilizing information inmajor transitions.Archives of General Psychiatry17277–284(1967)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730270021005
      Hamilton, M.A rating scale for depression.Journalof Neurology and Neurosurgical Psychiatry2356–62(1960)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.23.1.56
      Hammer Burns, L., and Covington, S. N.(1998). Infertilitycounselling: A comprehensive handbook for clinicians.New York: Parthenon.
      Hampson, S. E., Skinner, T. C., Hart, J., Storey, L., Gage, H., and Foxcroft, D. et al. Behavioral interventions for adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: How effective arethey?Diabetes Care231416–1422(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.23.9.1416
      Handy, S. L., Boarnet, M. G., Ewing, R., and Killingsworth, R. E.How the built environment affects physicalactivity.American Journal of Preventive Medicine23(Suppl. 2)64–73(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2802%2900475-0
      Haney, T. L., Maynard, K. E., Houseworth, S. J., Scherwitz, L. W., Williams, R. B., and Barefoot, J. C.Interpersonal hostility assessment technique: Descriptionand validation against the criterion of coronary arterydisease.Journal of Personality Assessment66386–401(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6602_16
      Hansen, W. B., and Dusenbury, L.Building capacityfor prevention's next generation.Prevention Science2207–208(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013636131280
      Harburg, E., Erfurt, J. C., and Hauenstein, L. S. et al. Socio-ecological stressor areas and Black-Whiteblood pressure: Detroit.Psychosomatic Medicine35276–296(1973)
      Harpham, T., Grant, E., and Thomas, E.Measuringsocial capital within health surveys: Key issues.HealthPolicy and Planning17(1)106–111(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/17.1.106
      Harrell, J., Hall, S., and Taliaferro, J.Physiologicalresponses to racism and discrimination: An assessmentof the evidence.American Journal of Public Health93243–248(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.2.243
      Harrell, J. S., McMurray, R. G., Gansky, S. A., Bangdiwala, S. I., and Bradley, C. B.A public health vs. a risk-based intervention to improve cardiovascular health inelementary school children: The Cardiovascular Healthin Children Study.American Journal of Public Health891529–1535(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.10.1529
      Harrington, D., and Dubowitz, H.(1999). Preventing childmaltreatment. In R.Hampton (Ed.), Family violence (pp. 122–147).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Harris, K. M.(1999). The health status and risk behaviorsof adolescents in immigrant families. In D. J.Hernandez (Ed.), Children of immigrants: Health, adjustment andpublic assistance (pp. 286–315).Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      Harris, M. B., and Franklin, C.(in press). Effects of a cognitive-behavioral, school-based, group intervention with Mexican-American pregnant and parenting mothers.Social Work Research.
      Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention.Harvardreport on cancer prevention: Vol. 1. Causes of human cancer.Cancer Causes & Control7(Suppl. 1)53–59(1996)
      Haskell, W. L., Alderman, E. L., Fair, J. M., Maron, D. J., Mackey, S. F., Superko, H. R., Williams, P. T., Johnstone, I. M., Champagne, M. A., Krauss, R. M., and Farquhar, J. W.Effects of intensive multiple riskfactor reduction on coronary atherosclerosis and clinicalcardiac events in men and women with coronary arterydisease.Circulation89975–990(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.89.3.975
      Hatch, J.Empowering Black churches for healthpromotion.Health Values163–9(1992)
      Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C.A multiphasicpersonality schedule (Minnesota): I. Construction of theschedule.Journal of Psychology10249–254(1942)http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1940.9917000
      Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C.(1951). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory manual (Rev.).New York: Psychological Corporation.
      Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C.(1989). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 manual for admin-istration and scoring.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
      Haugaard, J. J.The challenge of defining child sex-ual abuse.American Psychologist551036–1039(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.9.1036
      Havenaar, J. M., and Cwikel, J. G., and Bromet, E. J.(2002). Toxic turmoil: Psychological and societal consequencesof ecological disasters. Plenum series on stress and coping.New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
      Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., and Hill, K. G.Preventing adolescent health-riskbehaviors by strengthening protection during childhood.Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine153226–234(1999)
      Haynes, J., and Manci, E., and Voelkel, N.(1994). Pulmonarycomplications. In S. H.Embury, R. P.Hebbel, and N.Mohandas, and M.Steinberg (Eds.), Sickle cell disease: Basic principles and clinical practice (pp. 623–631).New York: Raven.
      Haynes, R. B., McDonald, H., and Garg, A. X., and Montague, P.(2002). Interventions for helping patients to follow pre-scriptions for medications [Systematic review]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.Victoria, Australia: La Trobe University, Cochrane Consumersand Communication Group.
      Haynes, R. B., McKibbon, K. A., and Kanani, R.Systematic review of randomised trials of interventionsto assist patients to follow prescriptions for medications.Lancet348383–386(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2896%2901073-2
      Haynes, S. G., Feinleib, M., and Kannel, W. B.Therelationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heartdisease in the Framingham Study: Eight-year incidenceof coronary heart disease.American Journal of Epidemiology11137–58(1980)
      Hays, R. D., Wells, K. B., Sherbourne, C. D., Rogers, W., and Spritzer, K.Functioning and well-being out-comes of patients with depression compared withchronic general medical illnesses.Archives of GeneralPsychiatry5211–19(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1995.03950130011002
      Hazuda, H. P., Stern, M. P., and Haffner, S. M.Acculturation and assimilation among MexicanAmericans: Scales and population-based data.SocialScience Quarterly69687–705(1988)
      Health Canada.(2001). Perspectives on complementaryand alternative health care: A collection of papers prepared for Health Canada (Cat. No. H39-572/2001E).Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Author.
      Heaney, C. A., and Goetzel, R. Z.A review of health-related outcomes of multicomponent worksitehealth promotion programs.American Journal of Public Health11290–308(1997)
      Heather, N., and Peters, T. J., and Stockwell, T. (Eds.). (2001). International handbook of alcohol dependence andproblems.Chichester, UK: Wiley.
      Hecht, S. S.Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lungcancer.Journal of the National Cancer Institute91(14)1194–1210(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/91.14.1194
      Heck, K., Wagener, D., and Schatzkin, A. et al. Socioeconomic status and breast cancer mortality, 1989through 1993: An analysis of education data from deathcertificates.American Journal of Public Health871218–1222(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.7.1218
      Heckman, T. G., Kockman, A., Sikkema, K. J., Kalichman, S. C., Masten, J., and Goodkin, K.Late middle-aged and older men living with HIV/AIDS: Race differences in coping, social support and psychologicaldistress.Journal of the National Medical Association92(9)436–444(2000)
      Heiman, J. R., and Meston, C. M.Empirically vali-dated treatment for sexual dysfunction.Annual Reviewof Sex Research8148–195(1997)
      Heimendinger, J., Van Duyn, M. A., Chapelsky, D., Foerster, S., and Stables, G.The National 5 a Dayfor Better Health Program: A large-scale nutrition inter-vention.Journal of Public Health ManagementPractice227–35(1996)
      Heisler, M., Bouknight, R. R., Hayward, R. A., Smith, D. M., and Kerr, E. A.The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, andpatient understanding in diabetes self-management.Journal of General Internal Medicine17243–252(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.10905.x
      Helgeson, V., and Cohen, S.Social support andadjustment to cancer: Reconciling descriptive, correlational, and intervention research.Health Psychology15135–148(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.15.2.135
      Helman, C. G.(2000). Culture, health and illness (4th ed.).Woburn, MA: Reed.
      Henderson, S., Duncan-Jones, P., Byrne, D. G., and Scott, R.Measuring social relationships. The InterviewSchedule for Social Interaction.PsychologicalMedicine10(4)723–734(1980)
      Henkel, G., and Pincus, T.(2000). The Arthritis Foundation' sguide to good living with rheumatoid arthritis.Atlanta, GA: Arthritis Foundation
      Hermens, H., Freriks, B., Merletti, R., Stegeman, D., Joleen, B., Gner, R., and Disselhorst-Klug, C., and Hagg, G.(1999). SENIAM: European recommendations for surfaceelectromyography.Enschede, the Netherlands: Roessingh Research and Development.
      Hester, R. K., and Miller, W. R.(1989). Handbook of alco-holism treatment approaches: Effective alternatives.New York: Pergamon.
      Hester, R. K., and Miller, W. R.(1995). Handbook of alco-holism treatment approaches: Effective alternatives (2nd ed.).Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
      Hiatt, R. A., and Rimer, B. K.A new strategy for cancer control research.Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention8957–964(1999)
      Higgins, S. T., and Silverman, K.(1999). Motivating behaviorchange among illicit-drug abusers: Research on contin-gency management interventions.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      Higgins, S. T., Wong, C. J., Badger, G. J., Haug Ogden, D., and Dantona, R. L.Contingent reinforcementincreases cocaine abstinence during outpatient treatmentand one year of follow-up.Journal of Consulting andClinical Psychology6864–72(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.1.64
      Hill, J. O., and Peters, J. C.Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic.Science2801371–1377(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5368.1371
      Hilton, J. L., and von Hippel, W.Stereotypes.Annual Review of Psychology47237–271(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.47.1.237
      Hines, E. A., and Brown, G. E.The cold pressor testfor measuring the reactibility of the blood pressure: Data concerning 571 normal and hypertensive subjects.American Heart Journal111–9(1936)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8703%2836%2990370-8
      Hingson, R., Heeren, T., Zakocs, R. C., Kopstein, A., and Wechsler, H.Magnitude of alcohol related mor-tality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18–24.Journal of Studies on Alcohol63136–144(2002)
      Hinkle, L. F., Jr., Whitney, L. H., Lehman, E. Q., Dunn, J., Benjamin, B., and King, R. et al. Occupation, education and coronary heart disease.Science161238–246(1968)http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.161.3838.238
      Hinrichsen, G. A., and Ramirez, M.Black and Whitedementia caregivers: A comparison of their adaptation, adjustment, and service utilization.Gerontologist32375–381(1992)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/32.3.375
      Hobel, C. J., Dunkel-Schetter, C., and Roesch, S.Maternal stress as a signal to the fetus.Prenatal andNeonatal Medicine3116–120(1999)
      Hochbaum, G. M.(1958). Public participation in medicalscreening program: A sociopsychological study.PublicHealth Service Publication No. 572. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
      Hodgkin, J., and Connors, G., and Celli, B. (Eds.). (2000). Pulmonary rehabilitation (4th ed.).Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
      Hogue, C. J., Hoffman, S., and Hatch, M. C.Stressand preterm delivery: A conceptual framework.Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology15(Suppl. 2)30–40(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3016.2001.00006.x
      Holland, J. C. (Ed.). (1998). Psycho-oncology.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Holmes, G. P., Kaplan, J. E., Gantz, N. M., Komaroff, A. L., Schonberger, L. B., and Strauss, S. S. et al. Chronicfatigue syndrome: A working case definition.Annals of Internal Medicine108387–389(1988)
      Holmes, T. H., and Rahe, R. H.The social readjust-ment rating scale.Journal of Psychosomatic Research11213–218(1967)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2867%2990010-4
      Holroyd, K. A.Assessment and psychological treat-ment of recurrent headache disorders.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology70656–677(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.3.656
      Holroyd, K. A., O'Donnell, F. J., Stensland, M., Lipchik, G. L., Cordingley, G. E., and Carlson, B.Management of chronic tension-type headache with tri-cyclic antidepressant medication, stress-managementtherapy, and their combination: a randomized controlledtrial.Journal of the American Medical Association2852208–2215(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.17.2208
      Holtmann, G., Armstrong, D., Pöppel, E., Bauerfeind, A., Goebell, H., Arnold, R., Classen, M., Witzel, L., Fischer, M., Heinisch, M., and Blum, A. L.Members of the RUDER Study Group.Influence of stress on thehealing and relapse of duodenal ulcers.ScandinavianJournal of Gastroenterology27917–923(1992)http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365529209000163
      Hom, D. B., Thatcher, G., and Tibesar, R.Growthfactor therapy to improve soft tissue healing.FacialPlastic Surgery1841–52(2002)
      Hooker, K., Monahan, D. J., Bowman, S. R., Frazier, L. D., and Shifren, K.Personality counts for a lot: Predictors of mental and physical health of spouse care-givers in two disease groups.Journal of Gerontology53P73–P85(1998)
      Hopper, J.The symbolic origins of conflict in divorce.Journal of Marriage and the Family63430–445(2000)
      Horsten, M., Mittleman, A. M., Wamala, S. P., Schenck-Gustafsson, K., and Orth-Gomér, K.Depressionand social isolation in relation to prognosis of coronaryheart disease in women.European Heart Journal21(13)1072–1080(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/euhj.1999.2012
      Horwitz, A. V., Raskin White, H., and Howell-White, S.Becoming married and mental health: A longi-tudinal study of a cohort of young adults.Journal of Marriage and the Family58895–907(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353978
      House, J., Robbins, C., and Metzner, H.The association of social relationships and activities with mortality: Prospective evidence from the Tecumseh CommunityHealth Study.American Journal of Epidemiology116123–140(1982)
      House, J. S.(1981). Work stress and social support.Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
      House, J. S., Kessler, R. C., and Herzog, A. R. et al. Age, socioeconomic status, and health.MilbankQuarterly68383–411(1990)
      House, J. S., and Williams, D. R.(2000). Understanding andreducing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities inhealth. In B. D.Smedley, and S. L.Syme (Eds.), Promotinghealth: Intervention strategies from social and behavi-oral research (pp. 81–124).Washington, DC: NationalAcademy Press.
      Houston, B. K.(1988). Cardiovascular and neuroendocrinereactivity, global Type A, and components of Type Abehavior. In B. K.Houston, and C. R.Snyder (Eds.), Type A behavior pattern: Research, theory, and intervention (pp. 212–253).New York: John Wiley.
      Houston, B. K.(1994). Anger, hostility, and psychophysio-logical reactivity. In A. W.Siegman, and T. W.Smith (Eds.), Anger, hostility, and the heart (pp. 97–115).Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Houts, A. C., Liebert, R. M., and Padawer, W.Adelivery system for the treatment of primary enuresis.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology11513–519(1983)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00917080
      Hox, J.(2002). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and appli-cations.Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Hu, F. B., Manson, J. E., and Willett, W. C.Types ofdietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: A criticalreview.Journal of the American College of Nutrition205–19(2001)
      Hu, F. B., Rimm, E., Smith-Warner, S. A., Feskanich, D., Stampfer, M. J., Ascherio, A., Sampson, L., and Willett, W. C.Reproducibility and validity of dietary pat-terns assessed by a food frequency questionnaire.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition69243–249(1999)
      Hu, F. B., Stampfer, M. J., Manson, J. E., Rimm, E., Colditz, G. A., Rosner, B. A., Hennekens, C. H., and Willett, W. C.Dietary fat intake and risk of coro-nary heart disease in women.New England Journal of Medicine3371491–1499(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199711203372102
      Hu, F. B., Stampfer, M. J., Rimm, E. B., Manson, J. E., Ascherio, A., Colditz, G. A., Rosner, B. A., Spiegelman, D., Speizer, F. E., Sacks, F. M., Hennekens, C. H., and Willett, W. C.A prospective study of egg con-sumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men andwomen.Journal of the American Medical Association2811387–1394(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.281.15.1387
      Hu, F. B., and Willett, W. C.(2002). Diet and coronary heartdisease in women. In P. S.Douglas (Ed.), Cardiovascularhealth and disease in women (2nd ed.).Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
      Hughes, E. C.Dilemmas and contradictions of sta-tus.American Journal of Sociology50353–359(1944)http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ajs.1945.50.issue-5
      Hughes, J., Fiester, S., Goldstein, M., Resnick, M., Rock, N., and Ziedonis, D.American PsychiatricAssociation practice guideline for the treatment of patients with nicotine dependence.American Journal of Psychiatry153(Suppl. 10)S1–S31(1996)
      Hughes, J., Goldstein, M., Hurt, R., and Shiffman, S.Recent advances in the pharmacotherapy of smoking.Journal of the American Medical Association28172–76(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.281.1.72
      Hughes, J., and Hatsukami, D.The nicotine with-drawal syndrome: A brief review and update.International Journal of Smoking Cessation121–26(1992)
      Humpel, N., Owen, N., and Leslie, E.Environmental factors associated with adults' participation in physicalactivity: A review.American Journal of PreventiveMedicine22188–199(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2801%2900426-3
      Hunt, L. M.(1999). The concept of acculturation in healthresearch: Assumptions about rationality and progress.East Lansing: Julian Samora Research Institute, Michigan State University.
      Hunt, S., and McEwen, J., and McKenna, S.(1986). Measuring health status.London: Croom Helm.
      Huyser, B. A., and Parker, J. C.Stress and rheuma-toid arthritis: An integrative review.Arthritis Care andResearch11135–145(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.v11:2
      Ickovics, J., and Park, C. L.Thriving: Broadening theparadigm beyond illness to health [Special issue].Journal of Social Issues54(1998)
      Idler, E. L., and Benyamini, Y.Self-rated health andmortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies.Journal of Health and Social Behavior3821–37(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2955359
      Illsley, R., and Mullen, K.(1985). The health needs of disad-vantaged client groups. In W. W.Holland, and R.Detels, and G.Know (Eds.), Oxford textbook of public health (pp. 389–402).Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
      Institute of Health Promotion Research, University of British Columbia.(1996). Study of participatoryresearch in health promotion: Review and recommendations for the development of participatory research inhealth promotion in Canada.Ottawa: Royal Society of Canada. Available from http://www.rsc.ca/english/publications.html
      Institute of Medicine.(1994a). Growing up tobacco free: Preventing nicotine addiction in children and youth.Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      Institute of Medicine.(1994b). Reducing the risk for mentaldisorders: Frontiers for preventive interventionresearch.Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      Institute of Medicine.(2001a). Exploring the biologicalcontributions to human health: Does sex matter?Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      Institute of Medicine.(2001b). Health and behavior: Theinterplay of biological, behavioral, and societal influences.Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      Institute of Medicine.(2002). Assessing potential sourcesof racial and ethnic disparities in care: The clinicalencounter. In Unequal treatment: Confronting racialand ethnic disparities in health care.Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      International Agency for Research on Cancer.(2002a). IARC Handbooks of cancer prevention: Vol. 6. Weightcontrol and physical activity.Lyon, France: Author.
      International Agency for Research on Cancer.(2002b). Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks tohumans (Vol. 82).Lyon, France: Author.
      International Association for the Study of Pain.Classification of chronic pain: Descriptions of chronicpain syndromes and definitions of pain terms.Pain3S1–S226(1986)
      Iribarren, C., Sidney, S., Liu, K., Markovitz, J. H., Bild, D. E., Roseman, J. M., and Mathews, K.Associationof hostility with coronary artery calcification in youngadults: The CARDIA Study.Journal of the AmericanMedical Association2832546–2551(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.283.19.2546
      Irving, L. M., Snyder, C. R., and Crowson, J. J., Jr.Hope and the negotiation of cancer facts by collegewomen.Journal of Personality66195–214(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00009
      Irwin, M.Psychoneuroimmunology of depression: Clinical implications.Brain, Behavior, and Immunity16(1)1–16(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brbi.2001.0654
      Isen, A. M., and Daubman, K. A.The influence ofaffect on categorization.Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology471206–1217(1984)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.47.6.1206
      Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., and Nowicki, G. P.Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology521122–1131(1987)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.6.1122
      Isen, A. M., Johnson, M. M. S., Mertz, E., and Robinson, G. F.The influence of positive affect on the unusualness of word associations.Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology481413–1426(1985)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.48.6.1413
      Isen, A. M., and Means, B.The influence of positiveaffect on decision-making strategy.Social Cognition2118–131(1983)
      Isen, A. M., Rosenzweig, A. S., and Young, M. J.Theinfluence of positive affect on clinical problem solving.Medical Decision Making11221–227(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272989X9101100313
      Ismail, A. I., and Szpunar, S. M.Oral health status of Mexican-Americans with low and high acculturationstatus: Findings from southwestern HHANES, 1982–84.Journal of Public Health Dentistry5024–31(1990)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphd.1990.50.issue-1
      Israel, A. C., Guile, C. A., Baker, J. E., and Silverman, W. K.An evaluation of enhanced self-regulation training in the treatment of childhood obesity.Journal of Pediatric Psychology19737–749(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/19.6.737
      Israel, B. A., Lichtenstein, R., Lantz, P., McGranaghan, R., Allen, A., and Guzman, J. R. et al. The Detroit Community-Academic Urban ResearchCenter: Development, implementation and evaluation.Journal of Public Health Management and Practice7(5)1–19(2001)
      Israel, B. A., Schulz, A. J., Parker, E. A., and Becker, A. B.Review of community-based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve publichealth.Annual Review of Public Health19173–202(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.19.1.173
      Israel, B. A., Schulz, A. J., Parker, E. A., Becker, A. B., and Allen, A. J., and Guzman, J. R.(2002). Critical issues indeveloping and following community-based participatory research principles. In M.Minkler, and N.Wallerstein (Eds.), Community-based participatory research for health (pp. 56–73).San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Istvan, J., and Matarazzo, J.Tobacco, alcohol andcaffeine use: A review of their interrelationships.Psychological Bulletin95301–326(1984)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.2.301
      Jackson, L. A., and Adams-Campbell, L. L.John Henryism and blood pressure in Black college students.Journal of Behavioral Medicine1769–79(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01856883
      Jacob, R. G., Thayer, J. F., Manuck, S., Muldoon, M., Tamres, L., Williams, D., Ding, Y., and Gatsonis, C.Ambulatory blood pressure responses and thecircumplex model of mood: A fourday study.Psychosomatic Medicine61319–333(1999)
      Jacobson, A. M.The psychological care of patientswith insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.New EnglandJournal of Medicine3341249–1253(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199605093341907
      Jahoda, M.(1958). Current conceptions of positive mentalhealth.New York: Basic Books.
      James, S. A.John Henryism and the health of African Americans.Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry18163–182(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01379448
      James, S. A., Hartnett, S. A., and Kalsbeek, W. D.John Henryism and blood pressure differences among Blackmen.Journal of Behavioral Medicine6(3)259–278(1983)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01315113
      James, S. A., Keenan, N. L., Strogatz, D. S., Browning, S. R., and Garrett, J. M.Socioeconomic status, John Henryism, and blood pressure in Black adults: The Pitt County Study.American Journal of Epidemiology13559–67(1992)
      James, S. A., Strogatz, D. S., Wing, S. B., and Ramsey, D. L.Socioeconomic status, John Henryism, and hypertension in Blacks and Whites.American Journal of Epidemiology126(4)664–673(1987)
      Janz, N. K., and Becker, M. H.The health beliefmodel: A decade later.Health Education Quarterly111–47(1984)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818401100101
      Jason, L. A., and Taylor, R. R.(2003). Chronic fatigue syndrome. In A. M.Nezu, and C. M.Nezu, and P. A.Geller (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology: Vol. 9. Health Psychology.New York: John Wiley.
      Jason, L. A., Richman, J. A., Friedberg, F., Wagner, L., Taylor, R., and Jordan, K. M.Politics, science, and the emergence of a new disease: The case of chronicfatigue syndrome.American Psychologist52973–983(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.9.973
      Jason, L. A., Richman, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., Jordan, K. M., Plioplys, A. V., and Taylor, R. et al. A community-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome.Archivesof Internal Medicine1592129–2137(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.159.18.2129
      Jemmott, J. B., Jemmott, L. S., and Fong, G. T.Abstinence and safer sex HIV risk-reduction interventions for African American adolescents: A randomized controlled trial.Journal of the American MedicalAssociation2791529–1536(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.19.1529
      Jenkins, D. J., Wolever, T. M., Taylor, R. H., Barker, H., Fielden, H., Baldwin, J. M., Bowling, A. C., Newman, H. C., Jenkins, A. L., and Goff, D. V.Glycemicindex of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrateexchange.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition34362–366(1981)
      Jennings, G. L. R.Mechanisms for reduction of cardiovascular risk by regular exercise.Clinical andExperimental Pharmacology and Physiology22209–211(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.1995.tb01982.x
      Jess, P., and Eldrup, J.The personality patterns inpatients with duodenal ulcer and ulcerlike dyspepsiaand their relationship to the course of the diseases. Hvidovre Ulcer Project Group.Journal of InternalMedicine235(6)589–594(1994)
      Jessor, R.Problem behavior and developmentaltransition in adolescence.Journal of School Health52295–300(1982)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josh.1982.52.issue-5
      Johnson, B. T., Carey, M. P., Marsh, K. L., and Levin, K. D., and Scott-Sheldon, L. A. J.(2003). Interventions to reducebehavioral risk of HIV infection in adolescents (1985–2000): A meta-analysis.Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.
      Johnson, D. W., and Johnson, F. P.(2003). Joining together: Group theory and group skills (7th ed.).Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
      Johnson, J. V., and Stewart, W. F.Measuring workorganization exposure over the life course with a job-exposure matrix.Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health1921(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.1508
      Johnson, K., and Grossman, W., and Cassidy, A. (Eds.). (1996). Collaborating to improve community health: Workbookand guide to best practices in creating healthier communities and populations.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Johnston, L. D., and O'Malley, P. M., and Bachman, J. G.(2001). Monitoring the future national survey results on druguse, 1975–2000: Volume 1, Secondary school students.(NIH Publication No. 01–4924).Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
      Joint Committee on Health Education Terminology.Report of the Joint Committee on Health EducationTerminology.Journal of Health Education22(2)97–108(1991)
      Jonas, W.(2000). The social dynamics of medical pluralism. In M.Kelner, B.Wellman, and B.Pescosolido, and M.Saks (Eds.), Complementary and alternative medicine: Challenge and change (pp. xi-xv).Amsterdam: Harwood Academic.
      Jones, D. W., Appel, L. J., Sheps, S. G., Rocella, E. J., and Lenfant, C.Measuring blood pressure accurately: New and persistent challenges.Journal of the American Medical Association2891027–1030(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.8.1027
      Jones, K., and Duncan, C.Individuals and theirecologies: Analysing the geography of chronic illnesswithin a multilevel modelling framework.Health Place127–40(1995)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1353-8292%2895%2900004-6
      Jones, W. H., and Carver, M. D.(1991). Adjustment and coping implications of loneliness. In C. R.Snyder, and D. R.Forsyth (Eds.), Handbook of social and clinical psychology: The health perspective (pp. 395–415).New York: Pergamon.
      Jorgensen, R. S., Johnson, B. T., Kolodziej, M. E., and Schreer, G. E.Elevated blood pressure and per-sonality: A meta-analytic review.Psychological Bulletin120293–320(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.120.2.293
      Joseph, J., and Breslin, C., and Skinner, H.(1999). Critical per-spectives on the transtheoretical model and stages of change. In J. A.Tucker, and D. M.Donovan, and G. A.Marlatt (Eds.), Changing addictive behavior: Bridging clinicaland public health strategies (pp. 160–190).New York: Guilford.
      Julius, S.The blood pressure seeking properties ofthe central nervous system.Journal of Hypertension6177–185(1988)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004872-198803000-00001
      Kagawa-Singer, M., and Chung, R. C.-Y.(2002). Towards anew paradigm: A cultural systems approach. In K. S.Kurasaki, and S.Okazaki, and S.Sue (Eds.), Asian Americanmental health: Assessments, theories and methods (pp. 47–66).New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
      Kahn, B. E., and Isen, A. M.The influence of positive affect on variety seeking among safe, enjoyableproducts.Journal of Consumer Research20257–270(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jcr.1993.20.issue-2
      Kahn, E. B., Ramsay, L. T., Brownson, R. C., Heath, G. W., Howze, E. H., and Powell, K. E. et al. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: Asystematic review.American Journal of PreventiveMedicine22(Suppl. 4)73–107(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2802%2900434-8
      Kahneman, D., and Diener, E., and Schwarz, N.(1999). Well-being: Foundations of a hedonic psychology.New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
      Kalichman, S. C.(1998). Preventing AIDS: A sourcebookfor behavioral interventions.Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Kalichman, S. C., Rompa, D., Cage, M., DiFonzo, K., Simpson, D., Austin, J., Luke, W., Buckles, J., Kyomugisha, F., Benotsch, E., Pinkerton, S., and Graham, J.Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce HIVtransmission risks in HIV-positive people.AmericanJournal of Preventive Medicine2184–92(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2801%2900324-5
      Kalish, R.Older people and grief.Generationspp. 33–38(1987, Spring)
      Kalman, D.Smoking cessation treatment for sub-stance misusers in early recovery: A review of the literature and recommendations for practice.Substance Useand Misuse332021–2047(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10826089809069815
      Kamarck, T. W., and Lovallo, W. R.Progress andprospects in the conceptualization and measurement of cardiovascular reactivity.Psychosomatic Medicine659–21(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000030390.34416.3E
      Kamarck, T. W., Jennings, J. R., Debski, T. T., Glickman-Weiss, E., and Johnson, P. S.Reliable measures of behaviorally evoked cardiovascular reactivity from aPC-based test battery: Results from student and community samples.Psychophysiology2917–28(1992)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.1992.29.issue-1
      Kamb, M. L., Fishbein, M., Douglas, J. M., Rhodes, F., Rogers, J., Bolan, G., Zenilman, J., Hoxworth, T., Malotte, K., Iatesta, M., Kent, C., Lentz, A., Graziano, S., Byers, R. H., and Peterman, T. A.Project RESPECTStudy Group.Efficacy of risk-reduction counseling to prevent human immunodeficiency virus andsexually transmitted diseases—A randomized con-trolled trial.Journal of the American Medical Association2801161–1167(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.13.1161
      Kaplan, G., and Baron-Epel, O.What lies behind thesubjective evaluation of health status?Social Science & Medicine56(8)1669–1676(2003)
      Kaplan, G., Salonen, J., Cohen, R., Brand, R., Syme, S., and Puska, P.Social connections and mortality fromall causes and cardiovascular disease: Prospective evi-dence from eastern Finland.American Journal of Epidemiology128370–380(1988)
      Kaplan, G. A.People and places: Contrasting per-spectives on the association between social class andhealth.International Journal of Health Services26507–519(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/4CUU-7B3G-G4XR-0K0B
      Kaplan, R. M., and Bush, J. W.Health-related quality of life measurement for evaluation research and policyanalysis.Health Psychology161–80(1982)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.1.1.61
      Kaplan, R. M., and Groessl, E. J.Applications of cost-effectiveness methodologies in behavioral medicine.Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology70482–493(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.3.482
      Kaptein, A. A., and Creer, T. L. (Eds.). (2002). Respiratorydisorders and behavioral medicine.London: MartinDunitz.
      Kar, S. B., and Alcalay, R., and Alex, S. (Eds.). (2001). Healthcommunication: A multicultural perspective.ThousandOaks, CA: Sage.
      Karasek, R., Baker, D., Marxer, F., Ahlbom, A., and Theorell, T.Job decision latitude, job demands, and cardio-vascular diseases: A prospective study of Swedish men.American Journal of Public Health71(7)694–705(1981)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.71.7.694
      Karasek, R. A.Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign.American Society for Quality24285–308(1979)
      Karasek, R. A., Brisson, C., Kawakami, N., Bongers, P., Houtman, I., and Amick, B.The job content questionnaire (JCQ): An instrument for internationally comparative assessments of psychosocial job characteristics.Journal of Occupational Health and Psychology3322–355(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.3.4.322
      Karasek, R. A., and Theorell, T.(1990). Healthy work: Stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of workinglife.New York: Basic Books.
      Karlamangla, A. S., Singer, B. H., McEwen, B. S., Rowe, J. W., and Seeman, T. E.Allostatic load as a predic-tor of functional decline: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology55696–710(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356%2802%2900399-2
      Karoly, P., and Kanfer, F. H.(1982). Self-management and behavior change.New York: Pergamon.
      Kasl, S. V.Measuring job stressors and studying thehealth impact of the work environment: An epidemiologic commentary.Journal of Occupational Health and Psychology3390–401(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.3.4.390
      Kasman, G., and Cram, J. R., and Wolf, S.(1998). Clinical applications in SEMG.Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.
      Katz, L. F., King, J., and Liebman, J. B.Moving toopportunity in Boston: Early results of a randomized mobility experiment.Quarterly Journal of Economics116607–654(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/00335530151144113
      Kaufman, J., Cooper, R., and McGee, D.Socioeconomic status and health in Backs and Whites: The problem of residual confounding and the resiliencyof race.Epidemiology8621–628(1997)
      Kaufman, N. J., Castrucci, B. C., Mowery, P. D., Gerlach, K. K., Emont, S., and Orleans, T.Predictors of change on the smoking uptake continuum among adolescents.Archives of Pediatrics and AdolescentMedicine156581–587(2002)
      Kawachi, I., and Berkman, L. F.(2000). Social cohesion, social capital, and health. In L. F.Berkman, and I.Kawachi (Eds.), Social epidemiology (pp. 174–190).New York: Oxford University Press.
      Kawachi, I., Colditz, G. A., Ascherio, A., Rimm, E. B., Giovannucci, E., and Stampfer, M. J. et al. A prospective study of social networks in relation to total mortalityand cardiovascular disease in men in the U.S.A.Journalof Epidemiology and Community Health50245–251(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.50.3.245
      Kawachi, I., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., Manson, J. E., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. E., and Hennekens, C. H.Smoking cessation and time course ofdecreased risk of coronary heart disease in women.Archives of Internal Medicine154169–175(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1994.00420020075009
      Kawachi, I., and Kennedy, B. P.Income inequalityand health: Pathways and mechanisms.Health ServicesResearch34215–227(1999)
      Kawachi, I., and Kennedy, B. P.(2002). The health ofnations.New York: New Press.
      Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B. P., and Glass, R.Social capital and self-rated health: A contextual analysis.American Journal of Public Health891187–1193(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.8.1187
      Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B. P., and Prothrow-Stith, D.Social capital, income inequality and mortality.American Journal of Public Health871491–1498(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.9.1491
      Kawachi, I., and Kennedy, B. P., and Wilkinson, R. G. (Eds.). (1999). Income inequality and health: A reader.New York: New Press.
      Kawachi, I., Sparrow, D., Spiro, A., III, Vokonas, P., and Weiss, S. T.A prospective study of anger andcoronary heart disease: The Normative Aging Study.Circulation942090–2095(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.94.9.2090
      Kazarian, S. S., and Evans, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). Handbookof cultural health psychology.San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      Keefe, F., Lumley, M. A., Buffington, A., Carson, J., Studts, J., Edwards, C. L., Macklem, D. J., Aspnes, A., Fox, L., and Steffey, D.The changing face of pain: The evolution of pain research.Psychosomatic Medicine64921–938(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000038934.67401.BA
      Keefe, F. J., Smith, S. J., Buffington, A. L. H., Gibson, J., Studts, J. L., and Caldwell, D. S.Recent advancesand future directions in the biopsychosocial assessmentand treatment of arthritis.Journal of Consulting andClinical Psychology70640–655(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.3.640
      Kelley, M. L., Jarvie, G. J., Middlebrook, J. L., McNeer, M. F., and Drabman, R. S.Decreasing burnedchildren's pain behavior: Impacting the trauma of hydrotherapy.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis1984147–158(1984)
      Kelly, J. A.(1995). Changing HIV risk behavior: Practicalstrategies.New York: Guilford.
      Kelly, J. A.Community-level interventions areneeded to prevent new HIV infections.American Journal of Public Health89299–301(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.3.299
      Kelly, J. A., Murphy, D. A., Bahr, G. R., Koob, J. J., Morgan, M. G., Kalichman, S. C., Stevenson, L. Y., Brasfield, T. L., Bernstein, B. M., and St. Lawrence, J. S.Factors associated with severity of depressionand high-risk sexual behavior among persons diagnosedwith human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.Health Psychology12215–219(1993)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.12.3.215
      Kelly, J. A., St. Lawrence, J. S., Diaz, Y. E., Stevenson, L. Y., Hauth, A. C., and Brasfied, T. L.HIV riskbehavior following intervention with key opinionleaders of a population: An experimental communitylevel analysis.American Journal of Public Health81168–171(1991)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.81.2.168
      Kemeny, M. E., Weiner, H., Taylor, S. E., Schneider, S., Visscher, B., and Fahey, J. L.Repeated bereave-ment, depressed mood, and immune parameters in HIVseropositive and seronegative gay men.HealthPsychology1314–24(1994)
      Kempe, C. H., Silverman, F. N., Steele, B. F., Droegemueller, W., and Silver, H. K.The bat-tered-child syndrome.Journal of the American MedicalAssociation18117–24(1962)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1962.03050270019004
      Kemper, T. D. (Ed.). (1990). Social structure and testos-terone: Explorations of the socio-bio-social chain.Portland, OR: Book News.
      Kennedy, S., Kiecolt-Glaser, J.-K., and Glaser, R.Immunological consequences of acute and chronicstressors: Mediating role of interpersonal relationships.British Journal of Medical Psychology6177–85(1988)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/papt.1988.61.issue-1
      Kerns, R. D., Turk, D. C., and Rudy, T. E.The West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI).Pain23345–356(1985)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959%2885%2990004-1
      Kessler, R. C.(1997). The effects of stressful life events ondepression. In Annual review of psychology (pp. 191–214).Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
      Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshelman, S., Wittchen, H. U., and Kendler, K. S.Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R: Psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey.Archivesof General Psychiatry518–19(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002
      Kessler, R. C., Zhao, S., Blazer, D. G., and Swartz, M.Prevalence, correlates, and course of minordepression and major depression in the national comor-bidity survey.Journal of Affective Disorders4519–30(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327%2897%2900056-6
      Ketterer, M. W., Denollet, J., Goldberg, A. D., McCullough, P. A., Farha, A. J., and Clark, V. et al. The big mush: Psychometric measures are confounded and noninde-pendent in their association with age at initial diagnosisof ICHD.Journal of Cardiovascular Risk941–48(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00043798-200202000-00006
      Ketterer, M. W., Freedland, K. E., Krantz, D. S., Kaufman, P., Forman, S., and Greene, A. et al. Psychologicalcorrelates of mental stress-induced ischemia in the lab-oratory: The psychophysiological investigations of myocardial ischemia (PIMI) study.Journal of HealthPsychology575–85(2000)
      Ketterer, M. W., Kenyon, L., Folet, B. A., Brymer, J., Rhoads, K., and Kraft, P. et al. Denial of depressionas an independent correlate of coronary artery disease.Journal of Health Psychology193–105(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135910539600100108
      Ketterer, M. W., Mahr, G., and Goldberg, A. D.Psychological factors affecting a medical condition: Ischemic coronary heart disease.Journal of PsychosomaticResearch48357–367(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999%2800%2900099-4
      Keys, A.(1980). Seven countries: A multivariate analysisof death and coronary heart disease.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
      Khoshaba, D. M., and Maddi, S. R.(2001). HardiTraining.Newport Beach, CA: Hardiness Institute.
      Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Dura, J. R., Speicher, C. E., Trask, O. J., and Glaser, R.Spousal caregivers of dementiavictims: Longitudinal changes in immunity and health.Psychosomatic Medicine53345–362(1991)
      Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Fisher, L. D., Ogrocki, P., Stout, J. C., Speicher, C. E., and Glaser, R.Marital quality, marital disruption, and immune function.PsychosomaticMedicine4913–34(1987)
      Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., and Glaser, R.Chronic stressand mortality among older adults.Journal of the American Medical Association2822259–2261(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.23.2259
      Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., and McGuire, L. et al. Psychoneuroimmunology and psychosomatic medicine: Back to the future.Psychosomatic Medicine64(1)15–28(2002)
      Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., McGuire, L., Robles, T. F., and Glaser, R.Emotions, morbidity, and mortality: New per-spectives from psychoneuroimmunology.AnnualReview of Psychology5383–107(2002)
      Killen, J. D., Telch, M. J., Robinson, T. N., Maccoby, N., Taylor, C. B., and Farquhar, J. W.Cardiovasculardisease risk reduction for tenth graders.Journal of the American Medical Association2601728–1733(1988)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1988.03410120074030
      Killough, A. L., Webster, W., Brown, V., and Houck, E., and Edwards, C. L.(2003). African American violenceexposure: An emerging health issue. In C. C.Yeakey, and R. D.Henderson (Eds.), Surmounting all odds: Educational opportunities in the new millennium.Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
      King, A. C.Interventions to promote physicalactivity by older adults.Journal of Gerontology56A36–46(2001)
      King, A. C., Stokols, D., Talen, E., Brassington, G. S., and Killingsworth, R.Theoretical approaches to thepromotion of physical activity: Forging a transdiscipli-nary paradigm.American Journal of PreventiveMedicine23(Suppl. 2)15–25(2002)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2802%2900470-1
      Kington, R. S., and Nickens, H. W.(2001). Racial and ethnicdifferences in health: Recent trends, current patterns, future directions. In N. J.Smelser, and W. J.Wilson, and F.Mitchell (Eds.), America becoming: Racial trends andtheir consequences (Vol. 2, pp. 253–310).Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
      Kirby, D.(2001). Emerging answers: Research findings onprograms to reduce teenage pregnancies.Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teenage Pregnancy.
      Kirsch, I.(1997). Specifying nonspecifics: Psychologicalmechanisms of placebo effects. In A.Harrington (Ed.), The placebo effect: An interdisciplinary exploration (pp. 166–186).Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
      Kirsch, I. S., Jungeblut, A., and Jenkins, L., and Kolstad, A.(1993). Adult literacy in America.Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
      Kirscht, J. P.The health belief model and illnessbehavior.Health Education Monographs2387–408(1974)
      Kissner, S., and Pratt, S.Occupational fatalitiesamong older workers in the United States.Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine39715–721(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00043764-199708000-00005
      Kitagawa, E. M.Components of a differencebetween two rates.Journal of the American StatisticalAssociation501168–1194(1955)
      Klassen, T. P., MacKay, J. M., Moher, D., Walker, A., and Jones, A. L.Community-based injury prevention interventions.Future of Children10(1)83–110(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602826
      Klein, R. B., Penza-Clyve, S., McQuaid, E. L., and Fritz, G. K.Behavior modification as adjunctivetherapy for asthma.Clinical Practice Management7326–330(2000)
      Klerman, G. L., Weissman, M. M., and Rounsaville, B. J., and Chevron, E. S.(1984). Interpersonal psychotherapy ofdepression.New York: Basic Books.
      Klippel, J. H., and Crofford, L. (Eds.). (2001). Primer on therheumatic diseases (12th ed.).Atlanta, GA: ArthritisFoundation.
      Klohnen, E. C.Conceptual analysis and measure-ment of the construct of ego-resiliency.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology701067–1079(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.5.1067
      Klonoff, E. A., and Landrine, H.Do Blacks believethat HIV/AIDS is a government conspiracy againstthem?Preventive Medicine28451–457(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1999.0463
      Klump, K. L., Kaye, W. H., and Strober, M.Theevolving genetic foundations of eating disorders.Psychiatric Clinics of North America24215–225(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0193-953X%2805%2970218-5
      Knight, B., Silverstein, M., McCallum, T. J., and Fox, L.A sociocultural stress and coping model formental health outcomes among African American care-givers in Southern California.Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences55BP142–P150(2000)
      Knight, B. G., and McCallum, T. J.Heart rate reac-tivity and depression in African-American and Whitedementia caregivers: Reporting bias or positive coping.Aging and Mental Health2212–221(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607869856696
      Knutsson, A., and Boggild, H.Shiftwork and cardio-vascular disease: Review of disease mechanisms.Review of Environmental Health15359–372(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/REVEH.2000.15.4.359
      Knutsson, A., Akerstedt, T., Jonsson, B. G., and Orth-Gomer, K.Increased risk of ischaemic heart disease inshift workers.Lancet1289–92(1986)
      Koenig, H. G., and McCullough, M. E., and Larson, D. B.(2001). Handbook of religion and health.New York: OxfordUniversity Press.
      Koloski, N. A., Talley, N. J., and Boyce, P. M.Predictors of health care seeking for irritable bowel syndrome and nonulcer dyspepsia: A critical review of theliterature on symptom and psychosocial factors.American Journal of Gastroenterology961340–1349(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2001.03789.x
      Koob, G. F., and LeMoal, M.Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis.Neuropsycho-pharmacology2497–129(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0893-133X%2800%2900195-0
      Kop, W. J.Chronic and acute psychological riskfactors for clinical manifestations of coronary artery dis-ease.Psychosomatic Medicine61(4)476–487(1999)
      Kop, W. J., Appels, A. P., Mendes de Leon, C. F., de Swart, H. B., and Bar, F. W.Vital exhaustion predictsnew cardiac events after successful coronary angio-plasty.Psychosomatic Medicine56281–287(1994)
      Kop, W. J., and Cohen, N.(2001). Psychological risk factorsand immune system involvement in cardiovascular dis-ease. In R.Ader, and D. L.Felten, and N.Cohen (Eds.), Psychoneuroimmunology (3rd ed., pp. 525–544).SanDiego, CA: Academic Press.
      Kornitzer, J., Kittel, F., Dramaix, M., and deBacker, G.Job stress and coronary heart disease.Advancesin Cardiology1956–61(1982)
      Kotler, P., and Roberto, N., and Lee, N.(2002). Social marketing: Improving the quality of life (2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Kotses, H., and Harver, A. (Eds.). (1998). Self-managementof asthma.New York: Marcel Dekker.
      Kovacs, M.(1992). Children's Depression Inventory.North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.
      Kramer, B. J.Gain in the caregiving experience: Where are we? What next?Gerontologist37218–232(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/37.2.218
      Kramer, M. S., Goulet, L., and Lydon, J. et al. Socio-economic disparities in preterm birth: Causal pathwaysand mechanisms.Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology15(Suppl. 2)104–123(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3016.2001.00012.x
      Krantz, D. S., and Manuck, S. B.Acute psychophys-iologic reactivity and risk for cardiovascular disease: Areview and methodologic critique.PsychologicalBulletin96435–464(1984)
      Kreuter, M. W., and Skinner, C. S.Tailoring: What' sin a name?Health Education Research151–4(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/15.1.1
      Kreuter, M. W., Strecher, V. J., and Glassman, B.Onesize does not fit all: The case for tailoring print materials.Annals of Behavioral Medicine21276–283(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02895958
      Kreuter, M., Farrell, D., and Olevitch, L., and Brennan, L.(2000). Tailoring health messages: Customizing communicationwith computer technology.Mahwah, NJ: LawrenceErlbaum.
      Krieger, N.Epidemiology and the web of causation: Has anyone seen the spider?Social Science andMedicine39887–903(1994)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2990202-X
      Krieger, N.Embodying inequality: A review of concepts, measures, and methods for studying healthconsequences of discrimination.International Journalof Health Services29295–352(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/M11W-VWXE-KQM9-G97Q
      Krieger, N.Epidemiology and social sciences: Towards a critical reengagement in the 21st century.Epidemiologic Reviews11155–163(2000)
      Krieger, N.A glossary for social epidemiology.Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health55693–700(2001a)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.55.10.693
      Krieger, N.Theories for social epidemiology inthe 21st century: An ecosocial perspective.InternationalJournal of Epidemiology30668–677(2001b)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/30.4.668
      Krieger, N., and Sidney, S.Racial discrimination andblood pressure: The CARDIA study of young Black andWhite adults.American Journal of Public Health861370–1378(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.10.1370
      Krieger, N., Sidney, S., and Coakley, E.Racial dis-crimination and skin color in the CARDIA Study: Implications for public health research.AmericanJournal of Public Health881308–1313(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.9.1308
      Kromhout, D., Bosschieter, E. B., and Coulander, C.The inverse relation between fish consumption and20-year mortality from coronary heart disease.NewEngland Journal of Medicine312(19)1205–1209(1985)http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198505093121901
      Kronfol, Z., and Remick, D. G.Cytokines and thebrain: Implications for clinical psychiatry.AmericanJournal of Psychiatry157(5)683–694(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.5.683
      Kubzansky, L. D., and Kawachi, I.Going to the heart ofthe matter: Do negative emotions cause coronary heart dis-ease?Journal of Psychosomatic Research48323–337(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999%2899%2900091-4
      Kubzansky, L. D., Kawachi, I., Weiss, S., and Sparrow, D.Anxiety and coronary heart disease: A synthesisof epidemiological, psychological, and experimentalevidence.Annals of Behavioral Medicine20(2)47–58(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02884448
      Kubzansky, L. D., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P., and Kawachi, I.Is the glass half empty or half full? A prospective study of optimism and coronary heart disease in thenormative aging study.Psychosomatic Medicine63910–916(2001)
      Kuh, G. D.(1994). The influence of college environmentson student drinking. In G.Gonzalez, and V.Clement (Eds.), Research and intervention: Preventing substanceabuse in higher education (pp. 45–71).Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
      Kulik, J. A., and Mahler, H. I. M.Effects of pre-operative roommate assignment on pre-operative anxietyand recovery from coronary bypass surgery.HealthPsychology6525–543(1987)
      Kumanyika, S. K., Morssink, C. B., and Nestle, M.Minority women and advocacy for women's health.American Journal of Public Health911383–1388(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.91.9.1383
      Kumpfer, K. L.(1999). Factors and processes contributingto resilience: The resilience framework. In M. D.Glantz, and J. L.Johnson (Eds.), Resilience and development: Positivelife adaptations (pp. 179–224).New York: KluwerAcademic/Plenum.
      Kunst, A. E., Feikje, G., and Mackenbach, J. P. et al. Occupational class and cause-specific mortality in middle-age men in 11 European countries.BMJ3161636–1642(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.316.7145.1636
      Kuper, H., and Marmot, M. G.Job strain, jobdemands, decision latitude, and risk of coronary heartdisease within the Whitehall II Study.Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health57(2)147–153(2003)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.57.2.147
      LaDou, J. (Ed.). (1997). Occupational and environmentalmedicine (2nd ed.).Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange.
      Lakey, B., and Cohen, S.(2000). Social support theory andmeasurement. In S.Cohen, and L. G.Underwood, and B. H.Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement andintervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 29–52).New York: Oxford University Press.
      Landro, N. I., Stiles, T. C., and Sletvold, H.Memoryfunctioning in patients with primary fibromyalgia and major depression and healthy controls.Journal of Psychosomatic Research42297–306(1997)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999%2896%2900301-7
      Landsbergis, P. A., Schnall, P. L., Deitz, D. K., Pickering, W. K., and Schwartz, J. E.Job strain and health behaviors: Results of a prospective study.AmericanJournal of Health Promotion12237–245(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-12.4.237
      Langley, J. D., Wagenaar, A. C., and Begg, D. J.Anevaluation of the New Zealand graduated driver licensing system.Accident Analysis and Prevention28139–146(1996)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-4575%2895%2900040-2
      Lantz, P. M., House, J. S., and Lepowski, J. M. et al. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and mortality: Results from a nationally-representative prospectivestudy of U.S. adults.Journal of the American MedicalAssociation2791703–1708(1998)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.21.1703
      Lantz, P., Jacobson, P., Warner, J., Wasserman, J., Pollack, H., Berson, J., and Ahlstrom, A.Investing inyouth tobacco control: A review of smoking preventionand control strategies.Tobacco Control947–63(2000)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tc.9.1.47
      Lantz, P., Viruell-Fuentes, E., Israel, B. A., Softley, D., and Guzman, J. R.Can communities and academiawork together on public health research? Evaluationresults from a community-based participatory researchpartnership in Detroit.Journal of Urban Health78495–507(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jurban/78.3.495
      LaPiere, R. T.Attitudes vs. actions.Social Forces13230–237(1934)http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2570339
      LaRosa, J. C., He, J., and Vupputuri, S.Effect of statins on risk of coronary disease: A meta-analysis ofrandomized controlled trials.Journal of the AmericanMedical Association2822340–2346(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.24.2340
      Lasater, T. M.Synthesis of findings and issues fromreligious-based cardiovascular disease prevention trials.Annals of Epidemiology7S46–S53(1997)
      Last, J. M. (Ed.). (1983). A dictionary of epidemiology.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Laumann, E. O., Paik, A., and Rosen, R. C.Sexualdysfunction in the United States.Journal of the American Medical Association281537–544(1999)http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.281.6.537
      Lavie, C. J., and Milani, R. V.Effects of cardiac reha-bilitation and exercise training programs on coronarypatients with high levels of hostility.Mayo ClinicProceedings74959–966(1999)
      Lavoie, J. P.Support groups for informal caregiversdon't work! Refocus the groups or the evaluations?Canadian Journal on Aging14580–595(1995)
      Lawlor, D. A., Ebrahim, S., and Davey-Smith, G.Sexmatters: secular and geographical trends in sex differences in coronary heart disease mortality.BMJ323(7312)541–545(2001)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7312.541
      Lawton, M. P., Rajagopal, D., Brody, E., and Kleban, M. H.The dynamics of caregiving for a dementedelder among Black and White families.Journal of Gerontology47S156–S164(1992)
      Lazarus, R. S.From psychological stress to theemotions: A history of changing outlooks.AnnualReview of Psychology441–21(1993)
      Lazarus, R. S., and Folkman, S.(1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping.New York: Springer.
      Lazarus, R. S., and Kanner,