• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Interest in economics is at an all-time high. Among the challenges facing the nation is an economy with rapidly rising unemployment, failures of major businesses and industries, and continued dependence on oil with its wildly fluctuating price. Economists have dealt with such questions for generations, but they have taken on new meaning and significance.Tackling these questions and encompassing analysis of traditional economic theory and topics as well as those that economists have only more recently addressed, 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook is a must-have reference resource.Key FeaturesProvides highly readable summaries of theory and models in key areas of micro and macroeconomics, helpful for students trying to get a "big picture" sense of the fieldIncludes introductions to relevant theory as well as empirical evidence, useful for readers interested in learning about economic analysis of an issue as well for students embarking on research projectsFeatures chapters focused on cutting-edge topics with appeal for economists seeking to learn about extensions of analysis into new areas as well as new approaches Presents models in graphical format and summarizes empirical evidence in ways that do not require much background in statistics or econometrics, so as to maximize accessibility to students.

Economic Instability and Macroeconomic Policy
Economic instability and macroeconomic policy

Macroeconomic instability and the business cycle are generally understood as changes in output or gross domestic product (GDP), unemployment, and inflation rates. The economy has a long-run growth path that is subject to short-term macro-economic demand and supply shocks that push GDP away from its long-run potential or trend growth rate. Smith and the classical tradition that followed believed a hands-off approach was the correct policy stabilization to pursue when such short-term output disturbances arose. This reflected classical emphasis on long-run growth as a supply process that was best left to private entrepreneurial activity. Furthermore, private market economies would automatically self-correct through appropriate wage and price adjustments. Recessions, characterized by “gluts” of commodities and workers, would ...

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