• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Interest in economics is at an all-time high. Among the challenges facing the nation is an economy with rapidly rising unemployment, failures of major businesses and industries, and continued dependence on oil with its wildly fluctuating price. Economists have dealt with such questions for generations, but they have taken on new meaning and significance.Tackling these questions and encompassing analysis of traditional economic theory and topics as well as those that economists have only more recently addressed, 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook is a must-have reference resource.Key FeaturesProvides highly readable summaries of theory and models in key areas of micro and macroeconomics, helpful for students trying to get a "big picture" sense of the fieldIncludes introductions to relevant theory as well as empirical evidence, useful for readers interested in learning about economic analysis of an issue as well for students embarking on research projectsFeatures chapters focused on cutting-edge topics with appeal for economists seeking to learn about extensions of analysis into new areas as well as new approaches Presents models in graphical format and summarizes empirical evidence in ways that do not require much background in statistics or econometrics, so as to maximize accessibility to students.

Taxes Versus Standards: Policies for the Reduction of Gasoline Consumption
Taxes versus standards: Policies for the reduction of gasoline consumption

Fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from the personal transportation sector promise to be key challenges facing the next generation of policy makers. In 1999, transportation became the largest end-use producer of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels in the United States. Gasoline-powered vehicles are responsible for about 60% of the carbon from the transportation sector. They also emit the majority of carbon monoxide, as well as substantial proportions of oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds (Davis, 2004).

The transportation sector became the largest producer of carbon dioxide for two reasons. First, with the exception of 2007 and 2008, when gas prices reached new highs and ...

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