Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 96: IQ: Viewpoints and Controversies
IQ: Viewpoints and Controversies
All cultures value intelligence; however, definitions of what constitutes intelligence vary across cultures. The term intelligence quotient (IQ) was coined by German psychologist William Stern (1871–1938) in 1912. IQ tests measure specific skills and specific knowledge that have been used to represent overall intelligence. The exporting and translation of Western measurements of intelligence through IQ testing has influenced views of intelligence globally. In the West, IQ testing has generated controversy as beliefs and assumptions have been challenged. There are three major issues for IQ testing: the question of whether there is a single general intelligence or multiple intelligences, the nature-nurture debate, and the use of IQ tests in policy and legal decisions.
Western psychometric IQ testing is based on ...