Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Violence and Warfare
Violence and Warfare
Warfare is an organized, socially sanctioned armed conflict that takes place between two independent political units, groups, or communities using military force (Malinowski, 1941; Mead, 1940, 1968; Otterbein, 1994). Otterbein (1994) has categorized warfare into three types: (1) internal war and two types of external war, (2) offensive war and (3) defensive war. While internal warfare is between political groups within the same cultural unit or larger aggregates within society, external war is between culturally different units or between the society under study and other societies (Ember & Ember, 1997; Otterbein, 1994). Of the two types of external war, offensive is attacking and defensive is being attacked (Otterbein, 1994).
Violence, a ubiquitous aspect of warfare, is a part of everyday life ...