Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents. 




Life is nothing but a process beginning with acts, rather than with thoughts. In the journey of life, every moment brings necessitation, which humans try to satisfy in their own way. Need was the first experience and efforts were there to satisfy the need. It is a general assumption that there are certain inherited tendencies-instincts-that humans acquired from their ancestors. When these inherited acts are repeated, they became customs in the same way; acted up individually, if repeated, they then became habits.

Customs are social habits forming the basis of an order of social behavior. There are various names for customs depending upon the situation. Ceremonies are customs signaling important events with the observance of some formal act or series of acts in the manner ...

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