Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 69: Africa: Past and Present
Africa: Past and Present
This chapter presents the study of Africa from historical and contemporary perspectives and considers its future prospects. It discusses Africa as the origin of humankind, where prehistoric and modern human societies have lived since the remote past. The chapter throws light on the ancient civilizations of Africa and African kingdoms. It outlines briefly the history of European contacts with Africa, first through exploration, then trade, and recently in the form of colonization. Other topics of interest in African studies are also part of this chapter, including the peoples, landscapes, regions, and countries of the continent, as well as the independence movement, postcolonial Africa, disillusionment, and modern challenges, hopes, and prospects. It ends with a summary and conclusion and ...