Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 58: Social Evolution
Social evolution refers to social or cultural change over relatively long periods of time. By social is meant having to do with two or more organisms of the same species engaged-directly or indirectly-in patterned interaction; by cultural is meant having to do with the way of life of a social group, insofar as that way of life is a social rather than a biological acquisition.
If the price of gasoline goes up, that is a social change (specifically, an economic one). If the price goes high enough and stays high, people's travel habits may actually change; that would be a cultural change. If the means of transportation themselves undergo significant change, that would be a cultural evolutionary change. These distinctions, though not exact, ...