Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 42: Prehistoric Cultures
The study of prehistoric culture concerns preliterate societies from their earliest development until the beginnings of the first political structures-the Greek and Roman empires. Neanderthals, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens were among some of these early peoples. Of these, only the Homo sapiens survived. Some of these peoples coexisted for periods of time. There is not always a clear indication of the time frame when different societies lived, as some developed at faster rates than others. Evidence of humans in Africa is millions of years older than evidence in the Americas. Even today, there are some hunter-gatherer societies that are without written language. The study of these societies is called protohistory.
Anthropologists make determinations about prehistoric cultures based on the best available evidence. ...