Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 35: Infectious Diseases and Anthropology
Infectious Diseases and Anthropology
Infectious diseases accompanied humanity throughout its existence and shaped history more profoundly than probably any other single biological factor. The epidemic from 165 to 180 BCE, referred to as the Antonine plague, or plague of Galen, is said to have caused 2,000 deaths per day and was considered the most decisive event in Roman history. The second bubonic plague pandemic from 14th-century Europe, also known as the black death, thought to be the deadliest pandemic in history, resulted in an estimated 50 million deaths and the loss of one third of the population in Europe and the Middle East. Smallpox caused 3.5 million deaths during a 1520 to 1521 outbreak, and the 1918 to 1919 Spanish flu claimed ...