Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 3: Human Brain
Whereas claims of human uniqueness used to revolve around the soul, they now revolve around the brain. Ever since Thomas Willis and his Oxford circle colleagues discovered in the late 1600s that the brain governs behavior, scientists have devoted considerable attention to this complex and inscrutable organ. Until recently, most approaches to the brain have been introspective and deductive. Philosophers and scientists traditionally have attempted to explain the brain's workings by examining its current functioning. They study, in other words, modern minds. While this top-down approach has yielded many insights, the limitations are obvious. To understand the human brain, a historical or evolutionary approach is necessary. It is only by locating the brain in deep time and tracing its evolutionary development that ...