Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 24: Peasant Societies
By the latter part of the 20th century, most scholars of the peasantry agreed that global capitalism had a disintegrating effect on traditional agricultural societies. What they were at odds over was the issue of how such economies were changed, and the consequences of these changes. Formalists were of the opinion that the capitalist market improved individual well-being by rewarding farmers who adopted new economic behaviors and farming techniques to maximize productive yields and profits (Popkin, 1979). Substantivists contended that the appearance of capitalism had an adverse effect on the traditional value structure and practices in these communities by instituting new classes and outside alliances that undermined the preexisting system at the expense of the common person (Scott, 1977). Marxists argued that ...