Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 2: Hominid Descriptions
The hominids are included in the superfamily Hominoidea, which groups together humans, great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans), lesser apes (gibbons and siamangs), and all the fossil relatives (e.g., Oreopithecus, Sivapithecus, Dryopithecus, and Australopithecus). Formerly, the hominoids were divided into hominids (humans) and pongids (great and lesser apes), the last ones of which were later subdivided in pongidae (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans) and hylobatidae (gibbons and siamangs). For this reason, the term “hominid” has been traditionally restricted to humans and their extinct relatives (i.e., those fossil taxa belonging to the human phylogenetic lineage). This definition is commonly used even by many anthropologists. However, taxa strictly grouping in hominids are not only humans, but also chimpanzees and gorillas, which form the ...