Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 11: Artifacts, Burials, and Ruins
Artifacts, Burials, and Ruins
In the 21st century, archaeology faces many challenges as field archaeologists balance traditional, current, and emerging concepts and techniques. They must apply these to site selection, excavation, recording, conservation, and analysis, for both individual artifacts and their broader matrix in mortuary through occupational contexts. This chapter outlines the broad range of traditional to current approaches for studying artifacts and their contexts, and incorporates selected issues and potential solutions for future archaeology.
As in many fields of study, the archaeology of diverse study areas/periods (e.g., Egyptology, classics, Mesoamerica) has splintered into numerous specialties (e.g., Egyptian archaeology, Egyptian language) and subspecialties (e.g., Old Kingdom Egypt, New Kingdom pottery). Such experts also rely on other fields and specialists for input (e.g., geology, ...