21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook


Edited by: H. James Birx

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Biological Anthropology

    Part II: Archaeology

    Part III: Sociocultural Anthropology

    Part IV: Linguistics

    Part V: Applied Anthropology

    Part VI: Methodology

    Part VII: Temporal Frameworks

    Part VIII: Theories in Anthropology

    Part IX: Evolution

    Part X: Primate Research

    Part XI: Culture Studies

    Part XII: Culture Areas

    Part XIII: Social Behavior

    Part XIV: Anthropology Today

    Part XV: Ongoing Issues in Anthropology

  • Copyright

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    List of Entries

    Reader's Guide


    Since its emergence as a discipline in the middle of the 19th century, anthropology has focused on the study of humankind in terms of science and reason, as well as logical speculation. Within a comprehensive and interdisciplinary framework, anthropology aims for a better understanding of and proper appreciation for the place of our species within earth history and organic development. As such, the scientific theory of biological evolution has been indispensable for giving meaning and purpose to the awesome range of empirical facts and conceptual insights that now constitute the rich content of present-day anthropology. Furthermore, cross-cultural studies emphasize the vast differences among human groups from the perspectives of material culture, social behavior, languages, and worldviews.

    Because of its holistic orientation, the anthropological quest includes four major but interrelated divisions of concentration: biological anthropology, archaeology, sociocultural anthropology, and linguistics. These four divisions represent many specific areas of academic interest and scholarly research, each area with its own unique topics and methods of inquiry. Early anthropologists sought not only to document human evolution, but also to record the cultural differences of other societies. They also speculated on the origin and history of human societies, cultures, and languages. Furthermore, early anthropologists benefited from and contributed to other special sciences, from geology and paleontology to sociology and psychology. To their advantage, anthropologists have remained open to the scientific discoveries in modern biology, for example, the DNA molecule, and the critical ideas in recent philosophy (e.g., the Marxist approach to solving social problems).

    Following the pivotal writings on evolution by Charles Darwin (1809–1882), the early anthropologists took time and change seriously. They speculated on the origin and history of our species and its relationship to the other primates, especially the great apes. Sir Edward Burnett Tylor wrote Primitive Culture (1871), extending the framework of organic evolution to include the historical development of human societies and their cultures. In the early 1890s, Eugene Dubois discovered a Homo erectus specimen at the

    Trinil site on the island of Java. Among others, these two events contributed to the emergence of anthropology as an academic discipline in its own right.

    Throughout the 20th century, scientific research remained a major concern for anthropologists. The discovery of Machu Picchu by Hiram Bingham in 1911 and the tomb of Tutankhamen by Howard Carter in 1922 brought worldwide attention to archaeology. Later, at Columbia University, the writings of Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, and Margaret Mead offered a cross-cultural perspective on human biology, language, thought, and behavior.

    In 1959, in central East Africa, the discovery of a Zinjanthropus boisei skull at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania by paleoarchaeologist Mary D. Leakey and the study of wild mountain gorillas in their natural habitats on the slopes of the Virunga volcanoes by zoologist George B. Schaller helped to usher in modern biological anthropology. And then there was the crucial extension of genetic research to the study of our own species in order to understand and appreciate the human animal within the wider framework of primate evolution.

    Today, after about 150 years, the discipline of anthropology is as active and relevant as ever. Incorporating the ongoing advances in science and technology, specialists in anthropology find no lack of engaging topics for scholarly research. There is the challenge and need to study and protect endangered nonhuman primates, to continuously search for fossil hominid specimens and hominid-made stone artifacts, and to comprehend the many complex relationships between our biocultural species and its dynamic environment. Moreover, anthropologists have been very instrumental in increasing human tolerance for the biological variations and cultural differences that exist within the hundreds of societies that comprise our global species. As a new research area, applied anthropology strives to be relevant in this civilized but converging world (e.g., the emergence of forensic anthropology and biomedical anthropology).

    The 102 chapters in this two-volume 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook attest to the many research topics being investigated by current anthropologists and related scholars in science and philosophy. Each of the 15 general categories offers not only the most recent empirical facts and explanatory concepts in the topics treated, but also those new areas that require further scientific research and philosophical reflection. And there are always new models, methods, theories, discoveries, and perspectives that will emerge in the ongoing development of anthropology throughout the coming decades.

    Within these pages, one will explore many varied but fascinating topics (e.g., from the concept of culture, ancient civilizations, and human ecology to paleopathology, twin studies, and terrorism). It is hoped that the 102 intriguing subjects, which make up this reference handbook, will both enlighten and inspire some readers to join the ongoing anthropological quest.


    At Sage Reference, I especially appreciate that its vice president and publisher, Rolf A. Janke, had recommended that I edit the two-volume 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook. Furthermore, I am deeply grateful to developmental editors Sara Tauber and Sanford Robinson for providing excellent guidance during the long and arduous evolution of this extensive and unique project.

    I also benefitted from the meticulous attention given to all the details of this comprehensive work through the expertise of production editor Carla Freeman and the copy editors Gretchen Treadwell, Patricia Sutton, and Cate Huisman.

    In particular, I am very appreciative of Ravi Balasuriya for his outstanding artistic contribution in designing the striking cover for this two-volume set.

    Moreover, I am deeply indebted to managing editor Sylvia S. Bigler at Canisius College, whose attentive focus on helping me to review these 102 chapters was an invaluable aid in the preparation of this reference handbook for publication. Without her professional administrative assistance and persistent moral support, the conception and completion of this project would not have been possible.

    Furthermore, these editorial board members have been most helpful during the preparation of this two-volume set: Robert Bollt, Paul F. Brown, Patricia N. Chrosniak,

    Irina Jovan Deretic, Jeffrey H. Schwartz, and Stefan Lorenz Sorgner.

    The range and depth of these challenging but exciting topics clearly attest to the ongoing significance of and interest in the research so necessary for the comprehensive discipline of modern anthropology. It is with heartfelt thanks that I acknowledge the contributing authors for their scholarly chapters. The following writers were especially helpful in providing several entries or an essential contribution for this academic work: Ignacio Arenillas, José Antonio Arz, Les Beldo, Robert Bollt, James Pleger Bonanno, Cris Campbell, Irina Jovan Deretic, Isabelle M. Flemming, Michael Joseph Francisconi, Robert Bates Graber, Britteny M. Howell, Joachim Klose, Ramdas Lamb, Kathleen Nadeau, Neil P. O'Donnell, Jeffrey H. Schwartz, Hans Otto Seitschek, Stefan Lorenz Sorgner, Ryan J. Trubits, Robert M. Worley, and Vidisha Barua Worley.

    Over the years, these individuals have offered encouragement and provided inspiration: Stefan Artmann, Pat Bobrowski, Brandin Robert Clark, Joshua Gerald Clark, Benjamin J. Cooper, Brian C. Crotzer, Christopher C. Dahl, Marvin Farber, Maximilian Flierler, Deanna L. Garwol, Edward G. Garwol III, Edward G. Garwol IV, Shirley A. Garwol, Debra G. Hill, Pamela Rae Huteson, Susanne Des Jardins, Albertha F. Kelley, Leonid A. Khinkis, Margaret M. Kraatz, Oliver W. Lembcke, David Alexander Lukaszek, Lawrence J. Minet, Dianne Marie Murphy, Rajko R. Pavlicic, Rev. Edmund G. Ryan, Maximilian Luitpold Schreck, Richard Albert Stein, Mark James Thompson, and Beatrix Vogel.

    During the past 7 years, opera and film have sustained me during the daunting task of editing and contributing to 10 volumes for Sage Publications. I remain thankful for the music of Richard Wagner and Giacomo Puccini, as well as the performances of Pernell Roberts and Mario Lanza.

    H.JamesBirxProfessor of Anthropology, Canisius CollegeDistinguished Research Scholar, State University of New York at GeneseoScientific Advisory Board, Ethics Center, Friedrich Schiller University in JenaScientific Board, Nietzsche-Forum Munich

    About the Editor

    H. James Birx, PhD, DSci, is Professor of Anthropology at Canisius College in Buffalo, NewYork, and Distinguished Research Scholar at the State University of New York at Geneseo. He received both his MA in anthropology and PhD with distinction in philosophy from the State University of New York-University at Buffalo. His professional interests range from evolution science, through biological anthropology, to process philosophy.

    Dr. Birx has been a visiting scholar at the University of Cambridge and twice at Harvard University. He has written more than 400 academic publications, including authoring 6 books and editing 14 other volumes, receiving awards for both his Theories of Evolution and the five-volume Encyclopedia of Anthropology (2006), and critical acclaim for his three-volume Encyclopedia of Time (2009).

    Dr. Birx has lectured extensively at renowned institutions and prestigious universities around the globe, from Australia to Russia. In 2010, he will give invited presentations at Alfa University, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University of Athens, University of the Aegean, University of Belgrade, University of Chicago, University of Munich (LMU), University of Oxford, and for the Nietzsche-Forum Munich. He will also be a scholar in residence at the State University of New York at Geneseo and then a distinguished visiting professor at the University of Belgrade for its faculty of philosophy.

    Dr. Birx has been fascinated with anthropology since childhood, when he first learned about wild mountain gorillas and different human cultures. Over the years, he has visited numerous zoos, museums, and anthropological sites from Egypt, England, and Germany to Hawai'i, Mexico, and Peru. Of particular importance was his research in craniometry at the Orchid site ossuary in Canada, and in paleoanthropology at the Koobi Fora site in Kenya, Africa. His professional listings include Who's Who in the World.

    About the Contributors

    Katie Elson Anderson is Reference and Instruction Librarian at the Paul Robeson Library, Rutgers University, in Camden, New Jersey, where she also serves as department liaison for the Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Criminal Justice. She holds a master of library and information science (2007) from Rutgers University and bachelor's degrees in anthropology and German from Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. Publications include chapters in Scholarly Resources for Children and Childhood Studies: A Research Guide and Annotated Bibliography (2007) and Teaching Gen M: A Handbook for Librarians and Educators (2009). Contributions to the World History Encyclopedia (2010) are forthcoming. Her research interests include the importance of new technologies to librarianship, teaching, and storytelling. Research for 21st Century Anthropology has led to a stronger appreciation of and understanding for her son's request to “read me a story.”

    Ignacio Arenillas is Professor of Paleontology in the Department of Earth Science at the University of Zaragoza, Spain. His scientific career spans over 17 years, having earned his Licentiate in geology in 1992 and his PhD in geology in 1996 from the University of Zaragoza. Authoring over 100 publications, he specializes in marine micropaleontology, including paleoecology and paleoclimatology. His teaching includes disciplines in paleontology and biology.

    Stefan Artmann is Scientific Manager at the Frege Centre for Structural Sciences and Institute of Philosophy, Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany. He holds an MA (1996) and PhD (1996) from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, and a PhD (2008) from Friedrich Schiller University in Jena. His principle areas of research are philosophy of information and computing, as well as philosophy of biology, and particularly the intersection of both: philosophy of artificial life and artificial intelligence. This involves interdisciplinary research with computer scientists, electrical engineers, and biologists. Current projects include the phi-bot project that explores the control of a simple robot by a slime mould, and another on the evolution of semantic systems that constructs a general framework for describing and explaining the origin and dynamics of complex adaptive systems.

    José Antonio Arz is Professor of Paleontology in the Department of Earth Science at the University of Zaragoza, Spain. He earned his Licentiate in geology in 1990 and his PhD in geology in 1996 from the University of Zaragoza. With more than 90 publications, he specializes in Cretaceous planktic foraminiferal biochronology, taxonomy, and paleoecology. His research focuses on evaluating the age and paleoenvironmental consequences of the Chicxulub meteoritic impact that caused the K-T mass extinction event. His teaching includes disciplines in paleontology, biology, and geology.

    Robert D. Bates, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Near East Archaeology and the History of Antiquity at La Sierra University and Curator of La Sierra University Archaeological Collection in Riverside, California. He teaches classes in ancient languages, archaeological methods and theory, field archaeology, and the ancient history of the Mediterranean. He received his PhD in biblical archaeology from Andrews University in Berrien Springs, Michigan, and did postdoctoral research at the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute in Egyptian archaeology. He is a field director for the Madaba Plains Project excavating at Tall al-Umayri and Tall Jalul, Jordan. His research interests include Iron Age Jordan, ancient Egyptian history and archaeology, the history and culture of ancient Palestine, and technology in archaeology.

    Christina Taylor Beard-Moose is Associate Professor of Anthropology and Women's Studies at Suffolk County Community College in Selden, NewYork. She has expertise in the history of feminist anthropology, feminism, women's studies, the women's spirituality movement in the United States, and the history of feminism. Her studies also include American Indians (prehistoric to contemporary issues), cultural and ecotourism, history of American anthropology, identity, performative expressions of identity, visual anthropology, 20th-century anthropological theory, and ethnographic field methods. She received her PhD in anthropology in 2004 from the University of Iowa with a dissertation titled Public Indians, Private Cherokee: Gendered Identity at the Intersection of Tourism, Acculturation and Cultural Continuity.

    Les Beldo is a PhD student in the Department of Comparative Human Development at the University of Chicago. He received his MA from the University of Chicago in 2008 and his BS from Central Michigan University in 2003. His research interests include psychological anthropology and cultural psychology, atheism and secularism, and cultural discourses on meaning and morality.

    Anne Bennett is Assistant Professor of Anthropology at California State University, San Bernardino. She received her PhD from the University of Arizona. She has conducted fieldwork in Syria focused on the Druze sect. Currently, her research interest is in heritage Arabic speakers and the Arab-American community in Southern California's Inland Empire.

    Frances F. Berdan is Professor of Anthropology and Codirector of the Laboratory for Ancient Materials Analysis at California State University, San Bernardino. She earned her PhD in anthropology from the University of Texas at Austin in 1975. Her research and publications focus on Aztec culture and society and on indigenous adaptations to Spanish colonial rule.

    Jay H. Bernstein is Assistant Professor and Reader Services Librarian at Kingsborough Community College-CUNY. He received his PhD in anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, after conducting 2 years of ethnographic fieldwork among the Taman in the interior of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. He has also conducted fieldwork in Brunei Darussalam among the Dusun on the ecology and ethnobiology of human-rainforest interaction. He is the author of Spirits Captured in Stone: Shamanism and Traditional Medicine Among the Taman of Borneo (1997). His articles on a diverse range of topics have been published in many professional journals, including American Anthropologist. His study of nonknowledge appeared in 2009 as a two-part article in Knowledge Organization. His current work focuses on the measurement of author impact and multidisciplinary perspectives on information organization.

    Andrea Patricia Birkby is Instructor of Anthropology at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado, where she teaches primate-related courses in various departments. She holds an MA in applied anthropology from the University of Colorado, Denver, and a BA in psychology from Fort Lewis College. Her areas of interest and specialization include primate behavior and conservation, and research on orangutans and globalization.

    Greta G. Boers is Librarian at Duke University. Her academic background includes a BA in anthropology from

    Emory University and an MLIS from the University of South Carolina. She has lived in South Africa, France, Germany, and the United States. Her interest in the subject of twin studies is personal, as she is related to two sets of monozygotic twins, aunts and uncles; she is also 7 years older than her two dizygotic twin sisters. Her chapter was written as a way to make up for all the misery she put them through while growing up together.

    Robert Bollt (1971–2010) was an archaeologist who specialized in ancient Polynesia. He obtained his PhD from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa in 2005. Recently he had concentrated on the Austral Islands in East Polynesia, where he found and excavated the archipelago's earliest known site to date. The results of this work are published in the monograph Peva: The Archaeology of an Austral Island Settlement (2008). He also excavated sites in Hawai'i and the Marquesas. His primary interests included Polynesian material culture and patterns of longdistance exchange among islands, determined by using geochemical sourcing analyses to trace stone tools to their geological source of origin. He also enjoyed experimental archaeology, especially stone toolmaking. Additional interests included Polynesian subsistence strategies, faunal analysis, human-environment relations, sociopolitical transformation, and warfare.

    Laura M. Bolt is a PhD candidate in biological anthropology at the University of Toronto, Canada. She received her master's degree from the University of Cambridge, UK, where her thesis addressed Darwinian sexual selection theory and the origins of music. Her published and forthcoming works explore topics such as Charles Darwin's social context, the development of Darwin's views on music and evolution, biomusicology, primate vocal communication, and ring-tailed lemur behavior.

    James Pleger Bonanno is a PhD student at the State University of New York at Binghamton. He received his MA in European history from the University at Buffalo. His research interests include the Enlightenment, the French Revolutionary period, and European intellectual history. His current research involves the influence of French Revolutionary ideas in Italy during the Napoleonic period, and the emergence of Italian nationalism.

    Lucas Bowman is currently pursuing a master's degree in geography at Appalachian State University in Boone, North Carolina. He holds a bachelor's degree in history with a minor in anthropology and geography. He also has interests in archaeology, performing cultural resource management with various companies across America. His current work revolves around early American banjo and the people who carry on this musical culture. Aside from academic interests, he is a caver and has participated in several cave-mapping surveys in West Virginia and Illinois. He also is an avid musician and plays with several bands.

    Paul F. Brown is Professor and Chair of the Department of Anthropology at Minnesota State University, Mankato, where he has been on the faculty for 30 years. He received his BA in anthropology from California State University, Northridge, and his MA and PhD from the University of Colorado, Boulder. In 1980, he spent a year at Michigan State University as an NIMH postdoctoral fellow in medical anthropology. In 1985, he spent a sabbatical year doing postdoctoral work in skeletal biology and paleopathology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, under the direction of Dr. George Armelagos. He has conducted research on human biocultural adaptation in the Andes of Peru, osteological analysis of human remains from Minnesota and, most recently, research on race and racism in science and society.

    Frances D. Burton is Professor Emerita in the Department of Anthropology, Scarborough Campus of the University of Toronto. She received her doctorate as the first graduate in anthropology from the City University of New York. A primatologist by training, her interest in food and food habits stems from her research primarily on macaques in Gibraltar and the hybrids of TaiPo (Hong Kong) and her interests in the stimuli of human evolution. She has recently published a book dealing with this issue, Fire: The Spark That Ignited Human Evolution, which speculates on the importance of insects in the diet of hominins, which led to an association with fire and its light, and the consequences deriving from the alteration of circadian rhythms. She has taught several courses concerning the anthropology of food as nutrient and culture, and has published on enhancing food production through simple means for the journal Emergency Nutrition Network.

    Cris Campbell is a PhD candidate in the Anthropology Graduate Program at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He previously earned degrees from the University of Tulsa (BA, 1987), Duke University (MA, 1991), and Duke University (JD, 1991). His current work in biocultural anthropology builds on his earlier graduate studies in philosophy and focuses broadly on the interplay of these two disciplines. In particular, he studies hominid evolution, cognitive architecture, and human behavior as these topics relate to the problems of metaphysics, meaning, and motivation.

    Patricia N. Chrosniak is Associate Professor in the College of Education and Health Sciences at Bradley University. She holds a BA in philosophy from Niagara University, an MS in speech and hearing science, and a PhD in educational psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She spent 5 years working on her doctorate at the National Center for the Study of Reading in Champaign, Illinois, where she participated in eye-movement research and research studies on text processing. Her main foci have been on anaphoric referencing, language transfer, and cross-linguistic influences in the interpretation of written texts by deaf individuals. Her writings include a chapter on visual literacy in Visual Data (2009) and several chapters regarding language in the Encyclopedia of Anthropology (2006) and the Encyclopedia of Time (2009). Among the scholarly organizations where she has regularly presented her research on language processing and cross-linguistics are the National Reading Conference (NRC), the Association of College Educators of the Deaf, and the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL).

    Jill M. Church is Librarian and Head of Periodicals Department at D'Youville College in Buffalo, New York. She received a BA in anthropology and an MLS from the State University of New York at Buffalo. She has authored many articles for the Encyclopedia of Anthropology (2006) and the Encyclopedia of Time (2009). She is active in her regional chapter of the Association of College and Research Libraries and is working to find ways to improve the research skills of students. Her research interests include the broad areas of archaeology and biological anthropology, in addition to evaluating research skills and improving indexing and access to electronic resources.

    Cynthia Crosser is Reference Librarian in Social Science and Humanities, and Subject Specialist in Psychology, Human Development, and Education, at the University of Maine. She received an MA in psycholinguistics from the University of Florida and an MS in library studies from Florida State University. She is currently pursuing an advanced degree in literacy from the University of Maine.

    Christopher David Czaplicki received a BS degree from Canisius College in Buffalo, New York, majoring in biology, with a minor in both neuroscience and anthropology. He has previously written several other entries for Sage Publications, including “Degenerative Diseases” in the Encyclopedia of Time (2009).

    Suzanne E. D'Amato is Associate Professor at Medaille College in Buffalo, New York. She holds a BS in elementary education (human relations cluster) from State University of New York College at Buffalo, an MS in elementary education and a MEd in administration and supervision from Canisius College. Her doctorate in curriculum and instruction was earned from University of Buffalo in 1994. To complement her interest in education, she studies anthropology, and she presented a paper titled Anthropology and Education at the University of Montana in 2003. Several of her entries appear in the Encyclopedia of Anthropology (2006) and the Encyclopedia of Time (2009). She has taught for a remarkable 49 years, 10 of which are in higher education.

    Irina Jovan Deretic is Assistant Professor of Ancient Greek Philosophy at the University of Belgrade. She was a guest professor at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany (summer semesters 2007, 2008), Pandion University, Athens, Greece (2001), and Yeditepe University,

    Istanbul, Turkey (2004). She was awarded the Sasakawa Scholarship and the Onassis Scholarship. Her fields of interests are ancient Greek philosophy, German hermeneutics, Hegel's philosophy, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of language, and national and international Russian and Serbian literature. She authored both How to Name the Being (2001) and Logos, Plato and Aristotle (2009), which has been selected as one of the best theoretical books in Serbia, as well as 70 academic papers in Serbian, English, German, Slovenian, and Macedonian. She has participated in more than 20 conferences and seminars. With Stefan Lorenz Sorgner, she organized an international conference on Humanism and Posthumanism, in honor of Professor H. James Birx, at the University of Belgrade (April 2009). She is a member of the executive board of the Serbian Philosophical Society and has been a member of the editorial board of the Serbian journals Theoria and Literary Word.

    Anna Maria Destro is Consultant Professor of Anthropology at the Eastern Piedmont Medical School. She graduated in psychology and philosophy at the Universities of Padua and Milan, maturating a broad interest in culture studies, with a particular dedication toward medical humanities. She was recipient of the Fulbright Scholarship in 1992, and accordingly studied at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in a program focused upon cultural identities and differences. During that time, she was also a fellow of the Martin Luther King Center and Bellevue Hospital, New York. She was appointed to the International Philosophy of Nursing Executive Committee (IPONS), and she is currently a member of the American Sociological Association. She is dedicated to Amish culture studies and, in particular, she works on a project endorsed by the Department of Anthropology at the Catholic University of Milan in 2004. She is presently part of the teaching staff of different Italian universities (Turin, Milan, Pavia, Novara).

    Marcia B. Dinneen is Head of Reference Services at Bridgewater State College, in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. She is also a visiting lecturer, teaching English composition and literature courses at Bridgewater State. She received her MLS from Columbia University and PhD from the University of Rhode Island. She has written a number of articles for peer-reviewed journals and reference books. Her dissertation topic on travel as a metaphor has led to articles in the Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia (2003) and a continuing interest in the whys and wherefores of migration.

    Terry W. Eddinger is Vice President for Academics and Professor of Old Testament at Carolina Evangelical Divinity School in High Point, North Carolina. He earned his PhD in Old Testament with an emphasis in ancient Near Eastern history and archaeology from The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1995. In addition to teaching biblical Hebrew and Old Testament studies at Carolina Evangelical Divinity School,

    he has been a member of the Karak Resources Project since 1996, which conducts archaeological fieldwork and research on the Karak Plateau in central Jordan. He excavated at al-Mudaybi, an 8th century BCE fortress, with the Karak Resources Project in the summers of 1997 and 2001. He also worked with the Mitrou Archaeological Project in central Greece in the summers of 2007 and 2008, where he led a team in conducting an archaeological survey of the East Lokris region. Also, he excavated at Tell Halif, Israel, with the Lahav Research Project in 1993 and spent 6 months in western Iraq with the United States Marine Corps in 2005. His travels have taken him to many places in Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, and the Middle East including Bahrain, Belgium, Crete, Germany, Greece, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Malta, Portugal, Spain, and the United Arab Emirates.

    Katie E. Englert is Adjunct Instructor of Anthropology for Northern Kentucky University. She holds a BA in photojournalism/anthropology from Western Kentucky University (2000) and an MA in anthropology from the Australian National University (2005), where she completed her MA thesis, Pictures Worth Thousands of Words: Youth, Ethnicity, and Photography. She is interested in visual anthropology, and her latest visual work was conducted in the Eastern and Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Currently, she resides in Portland, Oregon.

    Patricia E. Erickson, JD, PhD, is Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Canisius College. She received her JD from the State University of New York at Buffalo and her PhD from the University of Denver. In recent publications, she has addressed such issues as a critical assessment of child-abuse and child-neglect policy in the United States, the substantive due-process concerns raised by recent sex-offender statutes, and justice consciousness in the context of the practice of law. She is the coauthor (with Steven K. Erickson) of Crime, Punishment, and Mental Illness: Law and the Behavioral Sciences in Conflict (2008).

    Isabelle M. Flemming is Reference Librarian at the Ela Area Public Library in Lake Zurich, Illinois, where she teaches workshops, acts as computer specialist, and provides in-depth reference assistance for patrons. She is a member of the American Library Association and three of its specialized divisions. She received an MA in history, specializing in history of science, from the University of Florida, and an MLS from the University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign. She has published a short story and also published and written articles for an upcoming encyclopedia publication. Formerly an antiques dealer, much of her research has covered the history and use of objects, decorative and practical, particularly from the 19th and early 20th centuries. In addition, she has created a reference Web page designed to make searches simpler. Her research interests lie in the related fields of the history of culture and ideas, with a special focus on the future of virtual worlds and their impact on society.

    Michael J. Francisconi is Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Montana Western. As one of four children raised in a railroad worker's house in Pocatello, Idaho, he became a nontraditional student at Boise State University, where he received his BS in sociology while employed as a full-time staff member. He continued his full-time staff and student status during his years in the graduate programs with the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Oregon in Eugene. He used his theories of applied education while processing the papers of the International Wood Workers of America for the Special Collections Library at Oregon, and, while working on his dissertation, he both taught and pursued his research at Diné College on the Navajo Nation in Tsaile, Arizona. After receiving his PhD in anthropology from the University of Oregon, he and his family moved to Dillon, Montana, where he became the sole sociologist and anthropologist at the University of Montana Western. He has taught there since 1996, in addition to instructing graduate students in the sociology of education through the University of Montana. His book Kinship, Capitalism, Change: The Informal Economy of the Navajo Nation (based on his research and teaching on the Navajo Nation) was published in 1998. He continues to publish through Sage and other journals. His areas of focus include social theory, political sociology and anthropology, economic anthropology, social movements, and cultural ecology.

    Stephen D. Glazier is Professor of Anthropology and Graduate Faculty Fellow at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He received his PhD in anthropology from the University of Connecticut in 1981. He served as editor of Anthropology of Religion: A Handbook (1999), The Encyclopedia of African and African American Religions (2001), and (with Andrew S. Buckser) The Anthropology of Religious Conversion (2003). Currently, he researches Sango and Spiritual Baptist healers on the Caribbean island of Trinidad.

    Robert Bates Graber is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Truman State University. He received his AB from Indiana University and his MS and PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He is author of many scholarly articles and several books, the latest of which is Plutonic Sonnets (2008)-a sonnet cycle centering on the discovery and naming of planets and elements. His current research interest is quantitative analysis of social and cultural evolution.

    John K. Grandy is Physician Assistant (RPA-C) for Lee Medical Associates in Dunkirk, New York, and has been practicing medicine for 5 years. His area of specialty includes internal medicine and psychiatry. He earned his degree as a physician assistant at D'Youville College in Buffalo, New York. In addition, he earned a master's degree from the University of Buffalo Division of Roswell Park Cancer Institute with concentrations in molecular immunology and neurophysiology. Prior to these two degrees, he completed a bachelor of science degree at Canisius College in Buffalo, New York, with a major in biology and minors in anthropology and the classics. His research interests include internal medicine, psychiatry, consciousness studies, genetic engineering, philosophy, and the DNA molecule. Working in medicine and psychiatry exposed him to the importance of genetic relationships to diseases and successful treatments. The time he spent working in psychiatry piqued his interest in neurophysiology and neuropharmacology, which in turn increased his desire to study consciousness not only from a clinical or scientific standpoint, but also from a philosophical standpoint. It was while he was publishing articles on both consciousness and the DNA molecule that he developed his theories of DNA consciousness. During his work on the chapter in 21st Century Anthropology, he realized that genetic engineering may provide ways to further understand this process.

    John R. Grehan is Director of Science at the Buffalo Museum of Science. He holds a PhD in zoology from Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand) and is also an adjunct faculty member at Buffalo State College and a research associate in the Invertebrate Section at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. His research interests include evolutionary biogeography, evaluation of morphology as phylogenetic evidence for human-great ape relationships, and the integration of phylogenetic and geographic evidence for reconstructing the biogeographic origins of hominid ancestry.

    Mary J. Hallin is a doctoral candidate in geography, with a specialization in anthropology of indigenous peoples at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. She has worked in Cameroon for 5 years. Her dissertation examines collaboration between traditional and biomedical practitioners in northwestern Cameroon.

    Pamela Hayes-Bohanan is Reference Librarian and Coordinator for Library Instruction Services at the Clement C. Maxwell Library at Bridgewater State College in Massachusetts, where she is also a Spanish Instructor. She is active in the College's Writing Across the Curriculum network, the Diversity and Inclusion Research Institute, and developing strategies for the integration of information literacy into the college curriculum at all levels. She serves on Bridgewater's One Book One Community steering committee and the library's Events Planning Committee, and is an occasional contributor to the Internet Review of Books. Her primary research interests are in censorship and book banning, information literacy, and Latin American studies. She has previously written articles in such reference resources as Ready Reference: Censorship (1997), The Latino Encyclopedia (1996), and The Seventies in America (2006), among others. She received her master of library science degree from the University of Arizona in 1991 and her master of Spanish literature degree from Miami University of Ohio in 1990. Prior to coming to Bridgewater State College in 1997, she served as head of reference at the McAllen Memorial Library in McAllen, Texas, where she served a bilingual community of active library users.

    Jacob R. Hickman is a doctoral candidate at the University of Chicago in the Department of Comparative Human Development, where he specializes in psychological anthropology and cultural psychology. Jacob investigates the psychological and cultural dynamics of migration, resettlement, and social change in general. His current work constitutes a comparative ethnography of personhood and morality in Hmong communities that have resettled to the United States and Thailand from Laos. He has also published research on the changing health concepts among Hmong in Alaska (“‘Is It the Spirit or the Body?’ Syncretism of Health Beliefs Among Hmong Immigrants to Alaska,” NAPA Bulletin, 2007; and “Treating Hmong Children in America: Two Case Studies,” in The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion, 2009) and the dynamics of ethnic identity in Western Highland Guatemala (“Inverse Typology and Ethnic Identity: An Analysis of Inverse Image Theory in Two Guatemalan Communities,” The Journal of the Utah Academy, 2003).

    Britteny M. Howell is Adjunct Faculty of Anthropology at Northern Kentucky University and Anthropology Instructor at Gateway Community and Technical College. She received her bachelor of science degree in anthropology at Central Michigan University and her master of arts degree in anthropology at the University of Cincinnati, and she is a registered professional archaeologist. Her research interests include osteology, medical anthropology, human growth and development, and the anthropology of children. She has conducted skeletal analyses of human decapitation sacrifices in Peru, forensic analyses of human remains in Albania, and research into the factors contributing to childhood undernutrition and the associated skeletal pathologies. Her research in anthropology has taken her to Alaska, Scotland, Arizona, and the Midwest, and she has presented her research at numerous professional conferences. Her recent research examined the health perceptions of early adolescent Latina girls using community-based participatory research methodology and was published in Family and Community Health (2008). She has also used participatory-research methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a hospital-based home-visitation program aimed at assisting at-risk and first-time mothers in creating a nurturing, healthy environment for their children (accepted by Infants and Young Children).

    Pamela Rae Huteson attended Fairbanks University, University of Alaska Southeast. She authored Inuit-related entries for the Encyclopedia of Anthropology (2006), including “Aleut” and “Inuit Acculturation.” She also contributed to the Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society (2008) with “Aleuts” and “Canada, First Nations,” and to the Encyclopedia of Time (2009) with “Myths of Creation.”

    Chang-Ho C. Ji is Professor of Education and Middle Eastern Studies at La Sierra University in California, where he also teaches statistical and quantitative research methods.

    He holds a PhD from the University of California at Riverside, and from 1995 to 2002, he directed two large-scale archaeological survey projects in the regions of Iraq al-‘Amir and the Dhiban Plateau in Jordan. In addition, he conducted several salvage excavations at Khirbat Mahatta, Khirbat Bayada, the Wadi as-Sir, and the dolmen sites near Iraq al-‘Amir, Jordan. Currently, he serves as the director of the Khirbat ‘Ataruz excavation project and the Dhiban-Machaerus regional research project in Jordan. His additional research interests lie in the areas of prehistoric dolmens and stone monuments in the Middle East, Europe, and Asia, ancient Israelite and Iron Age religion, and the Hellenistic-early Roman history of the Levant. His research also extends to psychology of religion and Islam and their influence on social attitudes and behaviors, particularly in relation to authoritarian personality, principled moral reasoning, and social conservatism.

    Richard R. Jones is Associate Professor of Anthropology at Lee University in Cleveland, Tennessee. He received his PhD in anthropology from Wayne State University and his MA in linguistics from Oakland University. He has contributed to the Encyclopedia of Anthropology (2006), Jacking in to the Matrix Trilogy (2004), and other edited works. His current research interests include popular culture, ethnographic research of Christian groups on the Karak plateau in Jordan, migrant Arab communities in Chile and elsewhere, and archaeological survey in eastern Tennessee.

    Joachim Klose is Commissioner of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation for the Free State of Saxony. He studied theology, physics, philosophy, theory of science, logic, and statistics in Magdeburg, Berlin, Dresden, Munich, and Cambridge (Harvard University). In 1997, he earned his PhD at the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich. He was the president of the Catholic Academy of the Dresden-Meissen Diocese, and since 2006 has held the commissioner position at the Konrad Adenauer Foundation. He has organized and held many lectures on the difficulties of the transformation process of the former East Germany from a closed to an open society after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. For his work, he was awarded the Prize of Innovation for Adult Educational Work in the Free State of Saxony (2002).

    Kris “Fire” Kovarovic, PhD, is Lecturer in Human Evolution at Durham University, UK. As an undergraduate, she attended McGill University in Montréal to pursue a degree in anthropology and archaeology. Possessing limited talent for flint-knapping, she discovered an archaeological passion for bones rather than stones. She then crossed the Atlantic for an MSc in archaeology at University College London's (UCL) Institute of Archaeology in 1997 and has remained in the UK since that time. She obtained her PhD in the Department of Anthropology at UCL, spent time as a postdoctorate in the Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian Institution, and then returned to UCL to take up a Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship prior to moving to Durham. Her research interests include palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and faunal analysis, particularly at Plio-Pleistocene hominin sites in East Africa. She has participated in fieldwork at Laetoli, Tanzania, and currently codirects a long-term study of modern mammalian bone accumulations in Kenya. Her present research project investigates ecological trends at a number of Rift Valley localities and explores the differences in habitat signals provided by analyses of bovid fossil dentition and skeletal remains.

    Ramdas Lamb is Associate Professor of Religion at the University of Hawai'i. Prior to entering academia, he was a Hindu monk in the Ramananda order in northern India for nearly 10 years. Since the early 1970s, he has done field research on the monastic traditions and the religious cultures of northern and central India. Among his publications are Rapt in the Name: The Ramnamis, Ramnam, and Untouchable Religion in Central India (2002). He has written numerous articles in journals, encyclopedias, and edited volumes on various aspects of religious traditions and movements in South Asia. He also works with a nonprofit foundation (Sahayog Foundation) educating rural youth in central India.

    Sang-Hee Lee, PhD, BA, is Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of California at Riverside. She received her PhD from the University of Michigan in 1999 and her BA from Seoul National University in Korea in 1989. Her research examines the evolution of human morphological variation, and how different mechanisms (such as taxonomy, sex, age, and time) explain what is observed in fossil data.

    Oliver W. Lembcke is Senior Researcher at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany, and director of the Hellmuth Loening Center. He received his MA in 1995 from Christian Albrechts University in Kiel and his PhD in 2004 from Friedrich Schiller University (FSU) in Jena. His expertise is in political theory, constitutional theory, and public law. He has published 16 books (8 of them as an editor) and over 60 articles on the relationship between law and politics from both an empirical approach and a normative perspective. In 2005, his studies on the German Constitutional Court received an award from both the Institution of Political Science and the Faculty of Social Sciences at FSU Jena. In addition, he has been a visiting scholar at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, both Fudan University and Tongji University in Shanghai, Tilburg University (the Netherlands), and the Free University of Amsterdam. He has given presentations at Tampere University (Finland), Harvard University, the German Historical Institute in Paris, University of Copenhagen, Leiden University, and Hebrew University, Jerusalem. As a political scientist at Friedrich Schiller University, his research interests now focus on ideas about the French Revolution and the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes.

    Debra M. Lucas is Head of Reference and Interlibrary Loan at D'Youville College in Buffalo, New York. In this position, she has the unique opportunity to be an active scholar who also actively assists those faculty and students involved in research and scholarly pursuits at D'Youville College. She has published articles in the Encyclopedia of Time (2009), Encyclopedia of Anthropology (2006), St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture (2000), and the Journal of Information and Library Science. Her articles have also appeared in several Buffalo magazines and newspapers. She was included in Who's Who of American Women (2009) and was selected as D'Youville Faculty of the Year at the Library in 2007–2008 and 2005–2006.

    David Alexander Lukaszek, MA, BA, AAS, AOS, is currently a PhD student at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. He has participated in conferences at the University of Moscow and the University of Montana and has contributed to the Encyclopedia of Time (2009) and Encyclopedia of Anthropology (2006). His research interests include osteology, functional morphology, methodology, and evolution history. He also has an interest in the philosophy of science.

    Sarasij Majumder has a PhD in Anthropology from Rutgers University and is currently an Assistant Professor of International Relations at St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas. In Fall 2010, he will start as an Assistant Professor in Anthropology and Asian Studies at Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, Georgia. His primary focus is politics around land and industrialization in contemporary India. He studies identities and conflicts arising out of ownership of agricultural land and economic development in India. He also looks at how villages and villagers are represented by activists, media, and the state as “peasants” or “farmers.” Theoretically, his research looks at the complex relations between the local and the global, connected with each other both materially and discursively. He has an MA and an MPhil in sociology from Delhi University, India.

    Sara Rofofsky Marcus is Electronic Resources/Web Librarian at Queensborough Community College in New York. She earned her MLS from Queens College and her EdS degree in educational technology from the University of Missouri. Her PhD is in e-learning administration. Her prior employment includes teaching at the postsecondary level, both face-to-face and online, and working at a variety of libraries.

    Belete K. Mebratu is Assistant Professor of Education at Medaille College in Buffalo, New York. He received his PhD from the State University of New York-University at Buffalo and has been a lecturer at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. He has published on, and given presentations about, topics concerning modern Africa.

    Melissa A. Menasco is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Canisius College in Buffalo, New York. She received a BA in mathematics from UCLA and a PhD in sociology from the State University of New York-University at Buffalo. Her postdoctoral research was in nonverbal communication, with an emphasis on deceptive behaviors. Specializing in the area of criminology, her primary interests include social control theory, as well as juvenile delinquency and its long-term consequences on adulthood. She is an editorial board member of the international academic journal Sociological Inquiry.

    James F. Miskel is Consultant and Adjunct Professor at the U.S. Naval War College, Long Island University, and Norwich University. He received his PhD from the State University of New York. His research interests include national security and terrorism, with recent publications including Disaster Relief and Consequence Management: What Works, What Doesn't (2006) and The Leviathan Effect (2009).

    Christopher Morris is a doctoral student in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He currently studies the politics of German-led development, pharmaceutical governance, and health sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Gregory D. Mumford is Assistant Professor of Archaeology in the Department of History and Anthropology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He received a PhD in Egyptian archaeology from the University of Toronto and directs excavations at a late Old Kingdom fort (ca. 2200 BCE) at Tell Ras Budran in Southwest Sinai and a Late Period port town (ca. 664–332 BCE) at Tell Tebilla in the Northeast Delta (Egypt). Research interests include the late Old Kingdom to First Intermediate Period in Egypt and cross-cultural relations between Egypt and its neighbors, particularly in the Late Bronze through Iron Ages (ca. 1550–525 BCE).

    Kathleen Nadeau is Professor of Anthropology at California State University, San Bernardino, with a PhD in anthropology from Arizona State University. Her research interests are in globalization and development issues: human rights, sustainable development and cultural and ecological diversity in agriculture, and cultural liberation theologies with a special focus on Asia and Asian America. She has written two books, The History of the Philippines (2008) and Liberation Theology in the Philippines (2001). She presently is coediting the Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore (2010).

    Neil Patrick O'Donnell is Adjunct Professor of Anthropology at Canisius College in Buffalo, New York, and currently teaches archaeology and sociocultural anthropology. He holds a BA in anthropology from Buffalo State College and an MA in anthropology from the State University of New York at Binghamton. His research focus remains on Iroquoian populations and the ramifications of first contact between multiple cultural groups. He is also a novelist (fantasy genre). His most recent publication is People of the Sword (2009), a melding of his anthropological research and Celtic heritage.

    Arvilla Chapin Payne-Jackson is Professor at Howard University. She received her doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania, and her primary areas of research are medical anthropology, sociolinguistics, ethnographic evaluation, and service learning. She has conducted fieldwork in the United States, the Caribbean, Latin America, and Africa. She has published several books and monographs on ethnomedicine and numerous articles in all four fields. She has been an ethnographic evaluator and consultant for several federal agencies and community and nonprofit organizations.

    Donald R. Perry received his PhD in 1983 from the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California at Los Angeles. With his pioneering access methods used worldwide for investigation of the canopy, his work has appeared in international publications and documentaries. He won the 1984 Rolex Awards for Enterprise to develop a radio-controlled cableway for canopy investigation. His book, Life Above the Jungle Floor, was used for the feature film Medicine Man. He also invented the Rain Forest Aerial Tram and most recently Ecotram(tm). The latter invention allows the physically challenged to see otherwise inaccessible sights of nature.

    Rhonda L. Quinn is Visiting Professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Rutgers University and Affiliate Faculty Member in the Department of Anthropology at New York University. She earned her BA in 1996, MA in 1999 in anthropology, and BS in 1997 in geological sciences from the University of Florida. She completed her PhD in anthropology from Rutgers University in 2006. She studies the interaction of modern and extinct humans with the environment. She integrates stable isotopic systems with sedimentology and stratigraphy to elucidate environmental contexts of early genus Homo in the Turkana Basin and with bioarchaeology and zooarchaeology to reconstruct human diet and mobility of modern humans in coastal and island settings of Florida, the Cook Islands, and Fiji.

    Gwendolyn J. Reece is Director of Research, Teaching, and Learning at American University Library. She completed a PhD in education at American University, an MA in religious studies from the University of California at Santa Barbara, and an MS in library and information science from Simmons College. Her research interests include shamanism, mysticism, the relationship between spiritual and religious traditions and the environment, Waldorf education, and philosophy of education.

    Elaine M. Reeves is Reference Librarian and Information Literacy Lecturer at the University of Toledo, Ohio. As a graduate student of history at the University of Toledo, she studied the intellectual history of the French Revolution from a Marxist perspective, focusing on history and the potential for revolution to create positive change in society and culture. She has also presented her research on the voting patterns of women in 19th-century Wyoming. Her previous contributions to reference publications include several entries for the Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, and Culture (2009). She also reviews article submissions for the online journal Communications in Information Literacy.

    John Douglas Rhoades, PhD, is Professor and Chair of the Anthropology Department at St. John Fisher College in Rochester, NewYork. He received his PhD in anthropology from Syracuse University in 1976 and has conducted field-work on the sociolinguistic position of Swahili in Kenya by investigating perceptions of its supposed neutrality as manifested through language questionnaires and content of humor on language use. His publications include Linguistic Diversity and Language Belief in Kenya: The Special Position of Swahili (1977), and his topical interests in anthropology include communication, bilingualism, language planning, ethnolinguistics, theory and method in cultural anthropology, and intercultural communication, with area interests in Africa and China. Current research interests include language adaptation, ethnographic methods and field languages, and the relationship between kinds of linguistic structures and language functions.

    Erin E. Robinson is Associate Professor of Sociology at Canisius College in Buffalo, New York. She received her PhD in sociology at the University at Buffalo, where she researched mobilization patterns of social movement in communities facing environmental hazards. Her research has involved ethnographic field methods and the use of frame analysis as both a research tool and mode of analysis for researching social movement. Her primary research interests are environmental sociology, community mobilization, grassroots networking and collaboration, and social construction of risk. Currently, she is studying semiotics and the transformation of meaning in urban space surrounding the development of community gardens.

    Debika Saha is Reader in the Department of Philosophy at the University of North Bengal. In the fall of 2008, she was a visiting research professor at the Center for Research in Values and Philosophy at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., where she taught a seminar on sacred and secular concepts.

    Frank A. Salamone is Professor of Anthropology and Sociology at Iona College in New Rochelle, New York. He has conducted fieldwork in a number of settings, including Nigeria, the United States, Venezuela, and East Africa. He has authored over 100 articles and authored, edited, or coedited more than 15 books. His most recent books are The Lucy Memorial Freed Slaves’ Home (with Virginia Salamone, 2007), The Italians of Rochester 1940–60 (2007), and The Culture of Jazz: Jazz as Critical Culture (2009). His present research projects include the history of anthropology, particularly a book on Elsie Clews Parsons in the works, and popular images of the anthropologist.

    Tori M. Saneda is a tenured faculty member at Cascadia Community College in Bothell, Washington. She holds an MA and is a PhD candidate at The Ohio State University. Her interests include Mayan archaeology, origins of state-level societies, globalization, development, modernization, indigenous peoples, teaching modalities, and the learning college.

    Jeffrey H. Schwartz is Professor of Physical Anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh, where he is a Resident Fellow in its Center for the Philosophy of Science. He is also a Research Associate at the American Museum of Natural History. He has published more than 150 articles and reviews and authored 10 books, including Sudden Origins: Fossils, Genes, and the Emergence of Species (1999), The Red Ape: Orangutans and Human Origins (2005), and Skeleton Keys: An Introduction to Human Skeletal Morphology, Development, and Analysis (2007).

    Hans Otto Seitschek is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU) in Munich. In 2000, he received his MA in philosophy (Catholic theology, psychology) at LMU. He also received his PhD (summa cum laude) from LMU in 2005 with a thesis titled Political Messianism. He is a founding member of the International Eric Voegelin Society (April 2004), a member of the scientific board of the Nietzsche-Forum Munich, the Goerres Society, and the German Society of Philosophy, and he is on the editorial board for the Encyclopedia of Time (2009). His current research interests are ancient philosophy, philosophical anthropology, practical philosophy (philosophy of politics), philosophy of history, philosophy of religion, religion and politics, and Christian metaphysics.

    Susanna Servello received her Laurea magistrale (the main postsecondary academic degree in Italy) in humanities from the University of Parma, and she authored the book Vandana Shiva: A Woman for the Third Millennium Geography (2008). Among the interdisciplinary courses she attended are Emerging Questions About Globalization and Capitalism (2007); Person and Personality (2005); Future Problems in Sciences, Politics and Economy (2003); Decentred Cooperation as a Way to Peace (2003); and Thinking the Difference (2003). In 2007, she won the Special Award for Ecological and Nonviolent Culture of the Italian Laura Conti Prize, and in 2008, she authored Vandana Shiva. She has also collaborated with the international cultural magazine Grand Tour Cult, and she works for Diabasis Publishing House and Delta Publishing House as an editor and an author of the art/literary review Ottocento.

    Andrew Shooner received his bachelor of arts degree from The Ohio State University. He is currently completing his master's thesis at the University of Cincinnati in anthropology. His thesis research reviews methods for the digital recording and computer analysis of Southwestern rock-art pictographs. His past research has included human adaptation, satiety and overnutrition, and race and the eugenics movement. Other research interests include visual semantic systems in Southwestern rock art, emerging archaeometric technologies, cybernetics, and systems theory. He has received numerous awards and accolades including the University of Cincinnati Graduate Enrichment Grant and the University Graduate Scholarship. He has also presented his thesis research at the Society for American Archaeology annual conference in Austin, Texas.

    Shayna Silverstein is a Lecturer in ethnomusicology at the University of Chicago. Her dissertation explores popular dance music in Syria in relation to gender, sectarianism, nationalism, and cultural heritage. She lectures at the University of Chicago and Dartmouth College and has consulted and staffed a variety of arts programs and cultural initiatives including the Silk Road Project, Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, Make Music Not War, and the Lower Manhattan Cultural Council. She is trained in violin performance and dance and received her BA in history from Yale University.

    Michael J. Simonton is Lecturer of Anthropology at Northern Kentucky University. His current research is a longitudinal study of aging in northwest Ireland that follows the same group of people through 25 years of their life courses. His other research interests have been focused on the origins and migrations of ancient Celtic peoples just prior to and during the Iron Age. He has tried to use a combination of ancient history, linguistics, oral literature, and archaeology to trace the movements of two culturally and geographically related peoples across Europe who have followed different routes to end up as neighbors on the other side of the continent.

    Dirk Solies is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. He studied philosophy, German literature, and politics, earning an MA in 1992 from the University of Munich for a work on Nietzsche's theory of causality, and a PhD in 1998 from the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz for a dissertation titled Nature in the Distance: The Meaning of Georg Simmel's Philosophy of Culture for the Aesthetics of Landscape. He was awarded the science prize for philosophy for his advancement of intellectual dialogue (Lions Club Oppenheim). In 2008, he became a Doctor in Philosophy for his habilitation thesis How Life Came Into Philosophy: The Concept of Life in 19th Century Philosophy. His main areas of interest include Darwinism, Hegel, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer, as well as theories of culture and applied ethics.

    Stefan Lorenz Sorgner is Instructor of Philosophy at the University of Erfurt in Germany. He holds a BA in philosophy from King's College, University of London; an MA from the University of Durham; and a PhD from the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena. His main fields of research include Nietzsche, philosophy of music, bioethics, and posthumanism. He has edited several volumes and contributed numerous articles to encyclopedias and academic journals.

    Carlos Antonio Martin Soria, a lawyer and social scientist, received a PhD in Latin American Studies from Flinders University of South Australia in Adelaide. He also completed graduate studies in law and the social sciences, focusing on Amazon studies. His research areas include environmental law, indigenous peoples law, and ecological issues concerning Chile, Ecuador, and particularly Peru.

    Andreas Spahn is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Eindhoven University of Technology. He studied philosophy, German literature, and science of communication at the University of Essen, Germany, and the University of Notre Dame. He received his PhD from the Ruhr University Bochum in Germany with a work on hermeneutics published in 2008. His current research includes philosophy and ethics of technology, environmental ethics, and ethical issues of hermeneutics and communication.

    Christian Spahn, Assistant Professor, received his PhD in philosophy in 2006 from RWTH Aachen University, Germany, and a master of arts and letters degree from the University of Notre Dame. His areas of specialization are philosophy of biology, German idealism, and Hegel's conception of the philosophy of biology and its systematic implication for modern biophilosophy. He conducted his postdoctoral research as a fellow in the Department of Philosophy at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, and works in the Interdisciplinary Research Association (BMBF), where philosophers and natural scientists from different fields such as neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and cognitive psychology try to integrate the new results of evolutionary research and philosophical debates into a modern, critical, and adequate interpretation of the place of humankind in nature. He has also taught many classes about the influence of evolutionary biology on the interpretation of culture, and humankind and philosophy, with a special focus on evolutionary epistemology.

    Melony L. Stambaugh is an Adjunct Faculty member of Anthropology at Northern Kentucky University and a job coach for the Northern Kentucky Area Development District. She received her bachelor of science degree from Northern Kentucky University in applied cultural studies and her master of arts degree from the University of Cincinnati in anthropology with a focus on cultural anthropology. Her research interests include social network analysis, social organization, kinship, peasant studies, and Celtic, Native American, and Mesoamerican studies. She has conducted analyses of nonprofit organizations in Ohio, research of gender roles in modern Native American powwows, and research into the effects of fluoride in public water systems. Her research in anthropology has taken her throughout the Midwest, Ireland, and Mexico. Her work has been presented at professional conferences including the Central States Anthropological Society, Anthropologists and Sociologists of Kentucky, Kentucky Academy of Science, University of Cincinnati Graduate Poster Forum, University of Cincinnati Anthropology Department Student Conference, and Northern Kentucky University Celebration of Student Research and Creativity.

    Richard Albert Stein is Research Associate in the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University, and currently conducting postdoctoral research on yeast biology. He received his MD in 1996 from the “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and practiced clinical medicine for 2 years. Subsequently, in 2005, he earned his PhD in biochemistry from the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and continued to work on the molecular biology of microorganisms, publishing several articles in journals including Molecular Microbiology, Proceedings of the National Academy of the USA, Journal of Structural Biology, and Journal of Biological Chemistry. In addition to his work in basic research, he has a strong interest in exploring the interface between biomedical and social sciences, and particularly in understanding how certain human behaviors are linked to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases worldwide. He has published several articles on antibiotic resistance, zoonotic infections, and public health issues in the Annals of Internal Medicine, International Journal of Clinical Practice, and International Journal of Infectious Diseases, and his invited book reviews have appeared in publications such as The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, The Journal of the American Medical Association, The Journal of Infection, The New England Journal of Medicine, and Annals of Biomedical Engineering.

    Gerald Sullivan is Professor of Anthropology and Archaeology at Collin College in Plano, Texas. He was trained at the University of Virginia and received his PhD in 1998. His publications include Margaret Mead, Gregory Bateson and Highland Bali: Fieldwork Photographs of Bayung Gedé, 1936–1939 (1999). He began researching extensively in the Margaret Mead Papers in 1994 and continues this research to the present day. His work has also appeared in edited volumes, journals, and standard reference works. He is currently working on a second book on Mead and Bateson's scientific project tentatively titled The Making of Balinese Character. Most of his published work has focused on the history of anthropology with special attention to Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson's scientific projects in their ethnographic contexts. He is broadly interested in the history of the human sciences as an expression of the culture of liberalism in a globalizing age. He is also interested in the cultures of Southeast Asia, especially Bali, and New Zealand.

    Cynthia J. W. Svoboda is Associate Librarian at Bridgewater State College. She received her BS from Bridgewater State College and her MLIS from the University of Rhode Island. Her research interests include American history, Canadian history, archaeology, aviation, popular culture, and Asperger's Syndrome.

    Ryan J. Trubits received a BA degree from Canisius College in Buffalo, New York, majoring in both anthropology and history, with a minor in philosophy. The recipient of the national Eugene Buechel Award for excellence in anthropological achievements, his research focuses on primate behavior, hominid-pongid evolution, and the emergence of language. His interdisciplinary education included a semester of study at the University of Galway in Ireland, as well as academic experiences in Poland and Germany. He aspires to enlighten the public on the interconnectedness between the apes and our own species in terms of comparative biology.

    Fernando Valerio-Holguín holds a PhD in Hispanic Literature from Tulane University. Currently, he is a Professor of Caribbean Literature and Culture at Colorado State University. Poet, novelist, and critic, Valerio-Holguín has published more than 40 articles on literature, cinema, music, and culture in journals and has presented papers in more than 30 international conferences. In 1999, he was invited by the Julian Samora Research Institute at Michigan State University to give a presentation celebrating Dominican Republic Independence Day. In 2002, he was invited to present the paper “The Novela-Bolero in the Era of Mechanical Reproduction” in the coloquium Bolero: The Romantic Son of the Americas. In 2005, he obtained a grant from the British Academy to edit the book The Latin American Literary Bolero and present the paper “The Order of Popular Music in Dominican Narrative” at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, United Kingdom. In 2007, he was invited by Oxford University to present the paper “Dominican-American Writers: Hybridity and Ambivalence” at the Oxford Round Table.

    He has published the following books: Viajantes insomnes (Sleepless Travelers, 1982), Poética de la frialdad (Poetics of Coldness, 1996), Autorretratos (Self-portraits, 2002), Memorias del último cielo (Memories of the Last Heaven, 2002), Café Insomnia (Insomnia Café, 2002), Banalidad posmoderna: Ensayos sobre identidad cultural latinoamericana (Post-Modern Banality: Essays on Latin American Cultural Identity, 2006), and Rituales de la Bella Pagana (Rituals of the Pagan Beauty, 2009). He has edited Arqueología de las sombras: La narrativa de Marcio Veloz Maggiolo (Archaeology of the Shadows: Marcio Veloz Maggiolo's Narrative, 2000) and La novela-bolero en Latinoamérica (The Latin American Literary Bolero, 2008), and coedited The Caribbean(s) Redefined (1997), (De)Constructing the Mexican-American Border (1998), and La República Dominicana en el umbral del Siglo XXI: Cultura, política y cambio social (Dominican Republic at the Threshold of 21st Century, 2000).

    Jacky Vallée is a doctoral candidate in cultural anthropology at the University of Montreal. His research deals with the subcommunity of young users of alcohol among the Eastern James Bay Eeyou. He also teaches anthropology at Vanier College in Montreal. Areas of interest in anthropology include indigenous peoples, with a special focus on native peoples of Canada, gender and sexuality, spirituality, cultural contact, and experiential anthropology.

    Angela Kristin VandenBroek is Library Associate at Louisiana State University and a master's student at the University of Southern Mississippi. She is currently writing her thesis on the interplay of agency and identity among Muslim-American women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. She obtained her BS at Grand Valley State University in Michigan and plans to pursue a doctoral degree in cultural anthropology, with an emphasis on agency and identity theory.

    Lisa M. Vaughn, PhD, is Associate Professor of Pediatrics at University of Cincinnati College of Medicine/Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. She is formally trained as a social psychologist and medical educator and has concentrated on issues relevant to marginalized populations throughout her career. Her primary research interests concern sociocultural issues affecting the health and well-being of families, especially for immigrant and minority populations in the United States. Given a lifelong interest in other cultures, she has worked with universities and communities all over the world including Guatemala, South Africa, Denmark, and the Dominican Republic. A strong advocate of community-based participatory action research and the use of creative methodologies to give people “voice,” she has authored numerous publications and research articles including Culture Smart! Guatemala (2007); Feminist Conversations: Women, Trauma and Empowerment in Post-transitional Societies (2009); “Families and Cultural Competency: Where Are We?” and “‘Picturing’ Health: A Photovoice Pilot of Latina Girls’ Perceptions of Health” in Family & Community Health; and “Intercultural Adjustment for Cultural Competency in Shared Context” in The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. Currently, she is working on a cultural psychology text, a photography and social action manuscript, and a research study about cultural health attributions in culturally diverse populations.

    Constance B. Williams is Assistant Professor, Coordinator of Circulation, and College Archivist in the Kurt R. Schmeller Library of Queensborough Community College, the City University of New York. She has been employed at Queensborough Community College for over 14 years, including a position as coordinator of Library Services to the Homebound, and she has also worked in medical and corporate libraries. She holds a master's degree (AMLS) from the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and a master of science in secondary education/English from Queens College, the City University of New York.

    Robert M. Worley, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Penn State Altoona. He received his PhD in criminal justice from Sam Houston State University. His research interests include inmate-guard inappropriate relationships, violent crime, and legal issues in criminal justice. His publications have appeared in journals including Criminal Justice Review, Deviant Behavior, American Journal of Criminal Justice, and the Criminal Law Bulletin, among others.

    Vidisha Barua Worley, Esq., PhD, is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Penn State Altoona. She received her PhD in criminal justice from Sam Houston State University. She also holds a master's degree in criminal law from the Law School at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Her publications include the Press and Media Law Manual (2002) and Terrorism in India (2006). She also served as executive editor of the Buffalo Criminal Law Review. Her research areas include police and prison officers’ civil liabilities for the use of tasers and stun guns, ethical issues in criminal justice, forced medication of death row inmates to induce synthetic sanity, the federal judiciary, and terrorism. She is a licensed attorney in New York.

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