This seminal essay, written by Samuel P. Huntington and translated to Persian by Tavaana, posits that numerous transitions to democracy between 1974 and 1990 constituted a “third wave” of democratization (following the “first wave” beginning in the 1820s and a “second wave” post-World War II). Huntington, an influential political scientist best known for his “clash of civilizations” thesis of post-Cold War conflict, describes obstacles to democratization in non-democratic areas. He considers the most decisive factors influencing democratization, as well as examining the relationship between democracy and belief systems such as Confucianism and Islam.

Democracy's Third Wave’, SamuelP.HuntingtonJournal of Democracy, 2 (2) (1991): 12–34. © 1991 National Endowment for Democracy and The Johns Hopkins University Press. Reprinted with permission of The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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