This article examines the impact of migrant non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on the development of civil society in Beijing and Shanghai. Interviews with migrant NGOs’ representatives and government departments suggest that the expansion of civil society is dependent on both state and society actors. That is, civil society, viz. migrant NGOs, do not reflect the normative ideal of civil society - whereby, a separation of state and society activities is emphasised. The article will instead argue that civil society in this context can be seen as a descriptive concept and is used as a starting point to understand a complex inter-relationship between migrant NGOs and the state.

Spaces of Civil Society: The Role of Migrant Non-Governmental Organizations in Beijing and Shanghai’, JenniferY.J.HsuProgress in Development Studies, 12 (1) (2012): 63–76. Copyright © Sage Publications. All rights reserved. Reproduced with the permission of the copyright holders and the publishers, SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
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