State failure is both a key cause and symptom of underdevelopment in Africa. This article provides a geopolitical perspective on the reasons for state failure in Africa, and offers the following solutions to dealing with this phenomenon. First, local and external actors should prioritize state building and order over quick democratization. Second, in rare cases, the principle of national sovereignty may be overridden in the interests of security and development. Third, in very carefully selected cases, international boundaries may need to be redrawn.

Rethinking Responses to State Failure, with Special Reference to Africa’, BrennanM.KraxbergerProgress in Development Studies, 12 (2/3) (2012): 99–111. Copyright © Sage Publications. All rights reserved. Reproduced with the permission of the copyright holders and the publishers, SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
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