The Development of Citizenship to the End of the Nineteenth Century I shall be running true to type as a sociologist if I begin by saying that I propose to divide citizenship into three parts. But the analysis is, in this case, dictated by history even more clearly than by logic. I shall call these three parts, or elements, civil, political and social. The civil element is com¬posed of the rights necessary for individual freedom – liberty of the person, freedom of speech, thought and faith, the right to own property and to con¬clude valid contracts, and the right to justice. The last is of a different order from the others, because it is the right to defend and assert all one’s rights on terms of equality with others and by due process of law. This shows us that the institutions most directly associated with civil rights are the courts of justice. By the political element I mean the right to participate in the exercise of political power, as a member of a body invested with political authority or as an elector of the members of such a body. The corresponding institutions are parliament and councils of local government. By the social element I mean the whole range from the right to a modicum of economic welfare and security to the right to share to the full in the social heritage and to live the life of a civilised being according to the standards prevailing in the society. The institutions most closely connected with it are the educational system and the social services. In early times these three strands were wound into a single thread. The rights were blended because the institutions were amalgamated. As Maitland

Citizenship and Social Class’, T.H.MarshallCitizenship and Social Class: And Other Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950), pp. 1–85. Published by Cambridge University Press.
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