The Art of Policymaking: Tools, Techniques and Processes in the Modern Executive Branch, Second Edition is a practical introduction to the specific tools, techniques, and processes used to create policy in the executive branch of the U.S. government. George E. Shambaugh, IV and Paul Weinstein, Jr. explain how government officials develop policy, manage the policymaking process, and communicate those policies to stakeholders and the public at large. The authors draw on both their academic and government experience to provide real-world advice on writing policy decision memos, preparing polling questions, and navigating the clearance process. An abundance of case studies show how actual policies are developed and how and why policies and processes differ across administrations. Finally, practice scenarios allow students to apply the tools and techniques they have learned by working through both domestic and foreign policy situations.
Chapter 4: Agencies and Policy Implementation
Agencies and Policy Implementation
Executive Agencies and Departments and Executive Branch Policymaking
Even though the policymaking process since the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt has been increasingly centralized in the White House, federal agencies continue to play an important and dynamic role in the policymaking process. Because of the sheer number of government programs and decisions that need to be made, a large portion of the policymaking process remains outside the White House in executive branch agencies. The term agency refers to organizations with “Agency,” “Department,” or “Bureau” in their titles, like the Environmental Protection Agency or Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of State or Department of Defense, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. All of these agencies control the programs that implement ...