Often the whipping boys of politicians and pundits, lobbyists are the recipients of lampooning stump portrayals and sensationalized news coverage. Little attention is given to how most lobbyists simply do their job or become effective at what they do. Whether it's helping staff draft legislative language, providing members with quality policy and political information, or just being a good listener, lobbyists must build and maintain relationships. If they do, they'll succeed in advancing their policy objectives within the give-and-take process of the American legislative system. The Art of Lobbying examines strategies and techniques from the perspective of those who are lobbied—the people who know what resonates and what falls upon deaf ears in congressional offices. A former longtime lobbyist himself, Levine has interviewed more than 40 current or former members of Congress, along with their staffers, to give a thorough review of the relevant academic literature and offer a behind-the-scenes perspective on what constitutes the art of lobbying.
Chapter 8: Conclusion
At many points I have stressed that my intention in this book is not to put forward or to test hypotheses about what is or is not effective lobbying technique. Rather, my objective here is similar to that of Richard Fenno in Home Style. In the appendix to Home Style, Fenno asserts that “participant observation,” his primary ...