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Republic of Turkey

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti

Political Status: Independent republic established in 1923; parliamentary democracy since 1946, save for military interregna from May 1960 to October 1961 and September 1980 to November 1983; present constitution approved by referendum of November 7, 1982.

Area: 300,948 sq. mi. (779,452 sq. km).

Population: 84,174,000 (2020E—World Bank); 82,017,514 (2020E—U.S. Census).

Major Urban Centers (2015E—World Population Review): ANKARA (3,517,182), İstanbul (14,804,116), İzmir (2,500,603), Bursa (1,402,701), Adana (1,248,988), Gaziantep (1,065,975), Konya (875,530).

Official Language: Turkish. A 1982 law banning the use of the Kurdish language was rescinded in early 1991.

Monetary Unit: Turkish Lira (Türk Lirası—TL) (market rate September 30, 2020: 7.77 liras = $1US).

President of the Republic: Recep Tayyip ERDOĞAN (Justice and Development Party); elected in presidential elections on August 10, 2014, and inaugurated on August 28, succeeding ...

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