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Polish Republic

Rzeczypospolita Polska

Political Status: Independent state reconstituted 1918; Communist-ruled People’s Republic established 1947; constitution of July 22, 1952, substantially revised in accordance with intraparty agreement of April 5, 1989, with further amendments on December 29, including name change to Polish Republic; new interim “small” constitution introduced December 8, 1992; permanent “large” constitution approved by national referendum on May 25, 1997, effective October 17, 1997.

Area: 120,725 sq. mi. (312,677 sq. km).

Population: 37,949,000 (2020E—World Bank); 38,282,325 (2020E—U.S. Census).

Major Urban Centers (2018E—UN): WARSAW (1,702,139), Kraków (755,050), Łódź (768,555), Wrocław (634,893), Poznań (570,352), Gdańsk (461,865), Szczecin (407,811).

Official Language: Polish.

Monetary Unit: Złoty (market rate September 30, 2020: 3.88 złotys = $1US). After Poland joined the European Union in May 2004, the Polish government announced that it hoped to adopt the ...

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