Republic of Kazakhstan
Political Status: Entered the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic as autonomous republic on August 26, 1920; became constituent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on December 5, 1936; declared independence on December 16, 1991; current constitution approved by referendum of August 30, 1995, effective from September 6.
Area: 1,049,155 sq. mi. (2,717,300 sq. km).
Population: 18,882,000 (2020E—World Bank); 19,091,949 (2020E—U.S. Census). Emigration of ethnic Russians, Germans, and Ukrainians after independence, coupled with a declining birth rate (the lowest in Central Asia), caused a net decrease from the 1989 total of 16,536,511 to 14,953,100 in 1999.
Major Urban Centers (2019E—UN): NUR-SULTAN (formerly Tselinograd, then Akmola, and then Astana [renamed Nur-Sultan in 2019] 1,017,000), Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata, 2,039,000). Formal transfer of the government from the ...