Republic of India
Political Status: Independent since August 15, 1947; republican system instituted by constitution of January 26, 1950.
Area: 1,222,559 sq. mi. (3,166,414 sq. km), excluding approximately 30,160 sq. mi. (78,114 sq. km) of Jammu and Kashmir presently held by Pakistan and 16,480 sq. mi. (42,685 sq. km) held by China.
Population: 1,369,557,000 (2020E—World Bank); 1,326,093,247 (2020E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (urban areas, 2016—UN): NEW DELHI (26,454,000); Mumbai (formerly Bombay, 21,357,000); Kolkata (formerly Calcutta, 14,980,000); Chennai (formerly Madras, 10,163,000); Bengalooru (Bangalore, 10,456,000); Hyderabad (9,218,000); Ahmadabad (7,571,000).
Official Languages: Hindi, English (in addition to other languages that are official at state levels).
Monetary Unit: Rupee (market rate September 30, 2020: 73.72 rupees = $1US).
President: Ram Nath KOVIND (Bharatiya Janata Party); elected July 17, 2017, by an electoral college and inaugurated July ...