Republic of China
Political Status: Chinese province; controlled by the government of the Republic of China (established 1912), whose authority since 1949 has been limited to the island of Taiwan (Formosa), Penghu (the Pescadores), and certain offshore islands, including Kinmen (Quemoy) and Matsu; present constitution adopted December 25, 1946, effective from December 25, 1947.
Area: 13,592 sq. mi. (35,203 sq. km).
Population: 23,624,000 (2020—World Bank); 23,603,049 (2020E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2016E—UN): TAIPEI (2,669,000), Kaohsiung (1,525,000), Taichung (1,241,000), Tainan (815,000, 2015E), Keelung (374,000, 2015E).
Official Language: Mandarin Chinese.
Monetary Unit: New Taiwan Dollar (market rate September 30, 2020: 28.96 dollars = $1US).
President: TSAI Ing-wen (Democratic Progressive Party); elected January 16, 2016, and sworn in May 20 for a four-year term, succeeding MA Ying-jeou (Nationalist Party); reelected on January 11, 2020.