Political Status: Independent republic established July 1, 1960; revolutionary military regime installed October 21, 1969; one-party state proclaimed July 1, 1976; multiparty system authorized on December 25, 1990, but unimplemented prior to the assumption of power by rebel forces on January 27, 1991; national charter providing for three-year transitional national government adopted by Somali National Peace Conference July 16, 2000, in Arta, Djibouti; Transitional Federal Charter approved January 29, 2004, providing for a four-year transitional government; provisional constitution approved on August 1, 2012.
Area: 246,199 sq. mi. (637,657 sq. km), including Somaliland (68,000 sq. mi.; 176,120 sq. km).
Population: 10,398,757 (2014E—UN); 10,428,043 (2014E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Center (2005E): MOGADISHU (1,257,000, preliminary, including suburbs).
Principal Language: Somali.
Monetary Unit: Somali Shilling. Conditions in Somalia in recent years have rendered ...