Islamic Republic of Iran
Jomhori-e Islami-e Irân
Political Status: Former monarchy; Islamic Republic proclaimed April 1–2, 1979, on basis of referendum of March 30–31; present constitution adopted in a referendum of December 2–3, 1979.
Area: 636,293 sq. mi. (1,648,000 sq. km).
Population: 78,415,503 (2014E—UN); 80,840,713 (2014E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2011E—UN): TEHRAN (7,803,883), Mashhad (2,427,316), Esfahan (1,602,110), Tabriz (1,398,060).
Official Language: Persian (Farsi).
Monetary Unit: Rial (official rate October 1, 2014: 26,659.14 rials = $1US).
Supreme Religious Leader: Ayatollah Seyed Ali KHAMENEI; elected President October 2, 1981, and sworn in October 13, following the assassination of Mohammad Ali RAJAI on August 30; reelected August 16, 1985, and sworn in for a second four-year term on October 10; named Supreme Religious Leader by the Assembly of Experts on June 4, 1989, following the death ...