Republic of China
Political Status: Chinese province; controlled by the government of the Republic of China (established 1912), whose authority since 1949 has been limited to the island of Taiwan (Formosa), Penghu (the Pescadores), and certain offshore islands, including Kinmen (Quemoy) and Matsu; present constitution adopted December 25, 1946, effective from December 25, 1947.
Area: 13,592 sq. mi. (35,203 sq. km).
Population: 23,176,000 (2010C); 23,359,928 (2014E—U.S.).
Major Urban Centers (2005E): TAIPEI (2,619,000), Kaohsiung (1,522,000), Taichung (1,039,000), Tainan (761,000), Keelung (394,000).
Official Language: Mandarin Chinese.
Monetary Unit: New Taiwan Dollar (market rate November 1, 2013: 29.43 dollars = $1US).
President: MA Ying-jeou (Nationalist Party); elected March 22, 2008, and sworn in May 20 for a four-year term, succeeding CHEN Shui-bian (Democratic Progressive Party); reelected on January 14, 2012, and sworn in on ...