Poland

Polish Republic

Rzeczypospolita Polska

Political Status: Independent state reconstituted 1918; Communist-ruled People’s Republic established 1947; constitution of July 22, 1952, substantially revised in accordance with intraparty agreement of April 5, 1989, with further amendments on December 29, including name change to Polish Republic; new interim “small” constitution introduced December 8, 1992; permanent “large” constitution approved by national referendum on May 25, 1997, effective October 17, 1997.

Area: 120,725 sq. mi. (312,677 sq. km).

Population: 38,538,447 (2013E—UN); 38,383, 809 (2013E—U.S. Census).

Major Urban Centers (2013E): WARSAW (1,716,000), Kraków (758,000), Łódź (719,000), Wrocław (631,000), Poznań (551,000), Gdańsk (460,000), Szczecin (409,000).

Official Language: Polish.

Monetary Unit: Złoty (market rate November 1, 2013: 3.11 złotys = $1US). After Poland joined the European Union in May 2004, the ...

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