Political Status: Azerbaijan Republic established under Turkish auspices in May 1918; joined the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Republic on December 30, 1922; became separate Soviet Socialist Republic on December 5, 1936; independence declared August 30, 1991, by the Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet and confirmed by that body on October 18; new constitution providing for a strong presidential system adopted by national referendum on November 12, 1995, and entered into force November 27.
Area: 33,436 sq. mi. (86,600 sq. km).
Population: 9,540,584 (2012E—UN); 9,493,600 (2012E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Center (2005E): BAKU (1,820,000).
Official Language: Azeri (Azerbaijani).
Monetary Unit: Azerbaijani New Manat (official rate November 5, 2012: 1.27 manats = $1US). The new manat, equivalent to 5,000 old manats, was introduced in January ...