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Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti

Political Status: Independent republic established in 1923; parliamentary democracy since 1946, save for military interregna from May 1960 to October 1961 and September 1980 to November 1983; present constitution approved by referendum of November 7, 1982.

Area: 300,948 sq. mi. (779,452 sq. km).

Population: 75,217,838 (2012E—UN); 79,749,461 (2012E—U.S. Census).

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Major Urban Centers (2007E): ANKARA (3,641,931), İstanbul (10,291,102), İzmir (2,651,568), Bursa (1,504,817), Adana (1,294,460), Gaziantep (1,136,281), Konya (932,589).

Official Language: Turkish. A 1982 law banning the use of the Kurdish language was rescinded in early 1991.

Monetary Unit: Turkish Lira (Türk Lirası—TL) (market rate November 5, 2012: 1.78 Turkish New Liras = $1US).

President of the Republic: Abdullah GÜL (Justice and Development Party); elected by the Grand National Assembly on August 20, 24, and 28, 2007, and sworn in ...

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