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State of Qatar
Political Status: Traditional sheikhdom; proclaimed fully independent September 1, 1971; first permanent constitution, approved in referendum of April 29, 2003, went into effect on June 8, 2004.
Area: 4,247 sq. mi. (11,000 sq. km).
Population: 1,940,773 (2012E—UN); 1,951,591 (2012E—U.S. Census), including nonnationals, who constitute more than two-thirds of the resident population.
Major Urban Centers (2005E): DOHA (al-Dawhah, 353,000), Rayyan (276,000).
Official Language: Arabic.
Monetary Unit: Qatar Riyal (official rate November 5, 2012: 3.61 riyals = $1US).
Sovereign (Emir): Sheikh Hamad ibn Khalifa Al THANI; assumed supreme power June 27, 1995, deposing his father Sheikh Khalifaibn Hamad Al THANI; also served as prime minister July 11, 1995–October 28, 1996.
Heir to the Throne: Crown Prince Sheikh Tamin ibn Hamad Al THANI, designated August 5, 2003, replacing his brother, Sheikh Jassim ...