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Political Status: Independent since 1921; Communist People’s Republic established November 26, 1924; multi-party system introduced by constitutional amendment of May 11, 1990; current constitution adopted January 13, 1992, in effect from February 12.
Area: 604,247 sq. mi. (1,565,000 sq. km).
Population: 2,863,495 (2012E—UN); 3,179,997 (2012E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2005E): ULAANBAATAR (Ulan Bator, 936,000), Erdenet (82,000), Darhan (64,000), Choybalsan (40,000).
Monetary Unit: Tugrik (market rate November 5, 2012: 1,397.49 tugriks = $1US).
Official Language: Khalkha Mongol.
President: Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ (Democratic Party), popularly elected for a four-year term on May 24, 2009, and sworn in on June 18, succeeding Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party).
Prime Minister: Norovyn ALTANKHUYAG (Democratic Party); nominated by the president on July 16, 2012, and confirmed by the State Great Hural on August 8, succeeding Sukhbaatar BATBOLD ...