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Political Status: Unified state proclaimed in 1861; republic established by national referendum in 1946; under parliamentary constitution effective January 1, 1948.
Area: 116,303 sq. mi. (301,225 sq. km).
Population: 64,707,712 (2012E—UN); 61,261,254 (2012E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2005E): ROME (2,539,000), Milan (1,284,000), Naples (996,000), Turin (870,000), Palermo (675,000), Genoa (591,000).
Official Language: Italian (German is also official in Trentino-Alto Adige).
Monetary Unit: Euro (market rate November 5, 2012: 0.78 euro = $1US).
President of the Republic: Giorgio NAPOLITANO (Democrats of the Left) elected by the electoral college on May 8–10, 2006, and inaugurated on May 15 for a seven-year term, succeeding Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (independent).
President of the Council of Ministers: (Prime Minister): Mario MONTI (Independent), nominated by the president on November 13, 2011, and sworn in along with a ...