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Islamic Republic of Iran
Jomhori-e Islami-e Irân
Political Status: Former monarchy; Islamic Republic proclaimed April 1–2, 1979, on basis of referendum of March 30–31; present constitution adopted in a referendum of December 2–3, 1979.
Area: 636,293 sq. mi. (1,648,000 sq. km).
Population: 76,415,323 (2012E—UN); 78,868,711 (2012E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Center (2005E): TEHRAN (8,600,000).
Official Language: Persian (Farsi).
Monetary Unit: Rial (official rate November 5, 2012: 12,274.46 rials = $1US).[Page 653]
Supreme Religious Leader: Ayatollah Seyed Ali KHAMENEI; elected President October 2, 1981, and sworn in October 13, following the assassination of Mohammad Ali RAJAI on August 30; reelected August 16, 1985, and sworn in for a second four-year term on October 10; named Supreme Religious Leader by the Assembly of Experts on June 4, 1989, following the death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi KHOMEINI ...