Political Status: Gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830; military rule imposed following coup of April 21, 1967; civilian control reinstituted July 23, 1974; present republican constitution promulgated June 11, 1975.
Area: 50,944 sq. mi. (131,944 sq. km).
Population: 12,017,476 (2012E—UN); 10,767,827 (2012E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2007E): ATHENS (720,979, urban area, 3,799,134), Thessaloniki (Salonika, 363,987, urban area, 966,725), Patras (164,741), Iraklion (140,357), Larissa (130,946).
Official Language: Greek.
Monetary Unit: Euro (market rate November 5, 2012: 0.78 euro = $1US).
President: Karolos PAPOULIAS (Panhellenic Socialist Movement); elected by Parliament on February 8, 2005, and sworn in on March 12 for a five-year term, succeeding Konstantinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS (Democratic Renewal), who was constitutionally precluded from a third term; reelected by Parliament on February 3, 2010, and sworn in on ...