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Republic of Ecuador
República del Ecuador

Political Status: Gained independence from Spain (as part of Gran Colombia) in 1822; independent republic established in 1830; present constitution approved by a constituent assembly elected September 30, 2007, and in effect from September 28, 2008.

Area: 109,482 sq. mi. (283,561 sq. km), excluding the region previously in dispute with Peru, but including the Galápagos Islands.

Population: 15,067,379 (2012E—UN); 15,223,680 (2012E—U.S. Census).

Major Urban Centers (2005E): QUITO (1,526,000), Guayaquil (2,194,000), Cuenca (315,000), Ambato (166,000).

Official Language: Spanish.

Monetary Unit: U.S. Dollar. The dollar was phased in from January 2000 to March 2001 to replace the sucre as Ecuador’s legal tender.

President: Rafael CORREA Delgado (Country Alliance); elected in second-round voting on November 26, 2006, and inaugurated on January 15, 2007, succeeding Alfredo PALACIO Gonzáles (independent); reelected in ...

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