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Zhongguo Renmin Gongheguo
(Chung-hua Jen-min Kung-ho Kuo)

Note: At the 18th Party Congress, November 8–14, 2012, Vice President Xi Jingping was formally designated to succeed President Hu Jintao in March 2013, and along with a reshuffled politburo standing committee. On November 15, Hu resigned as leader of the Chinese Communist Party and chair of the military committee, thereby allowing his successor to begin the transition of power.

Political Status: Communist People’s Republic established October 1, 1949; government controls mainland China, Hong Kong (since 1997), and Macao (since 1999); present constitution adopted December 4, 1982.

Area: 3,692,213 sq. mi. (9,562,842 sq. km), excluding Taiwan.

Population: 1,314,992,000 (2011E, excluding Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macao); 1,322,679,000 (2011E, excluding Taiwan).

Major Urban Centers (urban areas, 2005E): BEIJING (Peking, 12,100,000), Shanghai (18,150,000), Guangzhou (Canton, 9,550,000), Wuhan ...

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