Republic of Chad
République du Tchad
Political Status: Independent since August 11, 1960; military regime instituted in 1975, giving way to widespread insurgency and ouster of Transitional Government of National Unity in 1982; one-party system established by presidential decree in 1984; constitution of December 10, 1989, suspended on December 3, 1990, following military coup; interim national charter announced February 28, 1991; transitional national charter adopted by Sovereign National Conference effective April 9, 1993; present constitution approved by national referendum on March 31, 1996, and revised by national referendum on June 6, 2005.
Area: 495,752 sq. mi. (1,284,000 sq. km).
Population: 11,863,179 (2012E—UN); 10,975,648 (2012E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Center (2005E): N’DJAMENA (864,000).
Official Languages: French and Arabic. In addition, some 25 indigenous languages are spoken.
Monetary Unit: CFA Franc (market rate November 5, ...