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Note: On October 15, 2010, the Georgian Parliament by a vote of 112–5 approved constitutional amendments that will transfer authority previously exercised by the president to the prime minister and cabinet. Although supporters claimed the measures would move Georgia closer to the parliamentary republic model favored by the European Union, skeptics noted that the changes, slated to go into effect in 2013, could permit President Mikhail Saakashvili to retain power (as prime minister) following completion of his second (and last) presidential term.

Political Status: Formerly the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, a constituent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); renamed Republic of Georgia on November 14, 1990; declared independence on April 9, 1991; renamed Georgia under new constitution promulgated on October 17, 1995. (The ...

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