Republic of Turkmenistan
Political Status: Turkmenian districts of former Bukhara and Khorezm republics added to autonomous Turkistan Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on October 27, 1924; became constituent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on May 12, 1925; declared independence as Republic of Turkmenistan on October 27, 1991; new constitution adopted May 18, 1992; present constitution adopted September 26, 2008.
Area: 188,456 sq. mi. (488,100 sq. km.).
Population: 4,483,251 (1995C); 5,032,000 (2008E).
Major Urban Center (2005E): ASHGABAT (Ashkhabad, 559,000).
Official Language: Turkmen.
Monetary Unit: Manat (official rate December 1, 2009: 14,215.00 manats = $1US).[Page 1493]
President and Prime Minister: Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMMEDOV (Democratic Party of Turkmenistan); elevated from deputy prime minister to acting president and prime minister on December 21, 2006, following the death ...