Republic of the Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas
Political Status: Independent republic since July 4, 1946; currently under constitution adopted by referendum of February 2, 1987, effective from February 11.
Area: 115,830 sq. mi. (300,000 sq. km.).
Population: 88,574,614 (2007C); 89,832,000 (2008E).
Major Urban Centers (2005E): MANILA (de facto capital, 1,510,000), QUEZON CITY (designated capital, 2,375,000), Caloocan City (1,357,000), Davao (816,000), Cebu (783,000).
Official Languages: Pilipino and English.
Monetary Unit: Peso (market rate December 1, 2009: 46.85 pesos = $1US).
President: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (Lakas–Christian Muslim Democrats); popularly elected as vice president on May 11, 1998, and inaugurated on June 30 for a six-year term; sworn in as president on January 20, 2001, succeeding Joseph E. ESTRADA (Party of the Filipino Masses), the Supreme Court having ruled on January 19 that the presidency was vacant; ...