Republic of Mali

République du Mali

Political Status: Independent republic proclaimed September 22, 1960; military regime established November 19, 1968; civilian rule reestablished under constitution approved in 1974 and promulgated June 19, 1979; 1974 constitution suspended on March 26, 1991, and replaced by interim Fundamental Act on March 31; multiparty constitution drafted by National Conference in July–August 1991, approved by popular referendum on January 12, and formally proclaimed on February 14, 1992.

Area: 478,764 sq. mi. (1,240,000 sq. km.).

Population: 9,790,492 (1998C); 12,717,000 (2008E).

Major Urban Center (2005E): BAMAKO (1,995,000).

Official Language: French. Bambara, Fulfuldé, Songhai, and Tamasaq are also commonly spoken.

Monetary Unit: CFA franc (official rate December 1, 2009: 434.59 CFA francs = $1US). The CFA franc, previously pegged to the French franc, is now permanently pegged to the euro ...

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