Political Status: Unified state proclaimed in 1861; republic established by national referendum in 1946; under parliamentary constitution effective January 1, 1948.
Area: 116,303 sq. mi. (301,225 sq. km.).
Population: 56,995,744 (2001C); 58,959,000 (2007E). The 2001 figure is de jure. The de facto figure is 57,110,144.
Major Urban Centers (2005E): ROME (2,539,000), Milan (1,284,000), Naples (996,000), Turin (870,000), Palermo (675,000), Genoa (591,000).
Official Language: Italian (German is also official in Trentino-Alto Adige).
Monetary Unit: Euro (market rate November 1, 2008: 1 euro = $1.51US).
President of the Republic: Giorgio NAPOLITANO (Democrats of the Left) elected by the electoral college on May 10, 2006, and inaugurated on May 15 for a seven-year term, succeeding Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (nonparty).
President of the Council of Ministers: (Prime Minister): Silvio BERLUSCONI (People of Freedom); elected ...