Republic of India
Political Status: Independent since August 15, 1947; republican system instituted by constitution of January 26, 1950.
Area: 1,222,559 sq. mi. (3,166,414 sq. km.), excluding approximately 30,160 sq. mi. (78,114 sq. km.) of Jammu and Kashmir presently held by Pakistan and 16,480 sq. mi. (42,685 sq. km.) held by China.
Population: 1,028,610,328 (2001C); 1,161,912,000 (2008E). The 2001 figure excludes three subdistricts of Manipur where administrative and technical difficulties resulted in cancellation of the results.
Major Urban Centers (urban areas, 2005E): NEW DELHI (15,966,000); Mumbai, formerly Bombay (17,893,000); Kolkata, formerly Calcutta (14,213,000); Chennai, formerly Madras (6,877,000); Bengalooru (Bangalore, 6,463,000); Hyderabad (6,096,000); Ahmadabad (5,118,000).
Official Languages: Hindi, English (in addition to other languages that are official at state levels).
Monetary Unit: Rupee (market rate December 1, 2009: 46.31 rupees = $1US).