Republic of Ecuador
República de Ecuador
Note: In elections held on April 26, 2009, President Rafael Correa of Country Alliance ran for his first term under the new constitution, approved by referendum on September 28, 2008, winning easily with 51.95% of the vote over runner up Lucio Gutiérrez with 28.24% of the vote.
Political Status: Gained independence from Spain (as part of Gran Colombia) in 1822; independent republic established in 1830; present constitution approved by a constituent assembly elected November 30, 1997, and in effect from August 10, 1998.
Area: 109,482 sq. mi. (283,561 sq. km.), excluding the region previously in dispute with Peru, but including the Galápagos Islands.
Population: 12,922,474 (2001C); 13,710,000 (2007E).
Major Urban Centers (2005E): QUITO (1,526,000), Guayaquil (2,194,000), Cuenca (315,000), Ambato (166,000).
Official Language: Spanish.
Monetary Unit: U.S. Dollar. ...