Republic of Turkmenistan

Tiurkmenostan Respublikasy

Political Status: Turkmenian districts of former Bukhara and Khorezm republics added to autonomous Turkistan Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on October 27, 1924; became constituent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on May 12, 1925; declared independence as Republic of Turkmenistan on October 27, 1991; present constitution adopted May 18, 1992.

Area: 188,456 sq. mi. (488,100 sq. km.).

Population: 4,483,251 (1995C); 4,945,000 (2004E).

Major Urban Center (1999E): ASHGABAT (ASHKHABAD, 606,000).

Official Language: Turkmen.

Monetary Unit: Manat (official rate July 1, 2005: 5,200 manats = $1US).

President and Prime Minister: Gen. Saparmurad Atayevich NIYAZOV (Saparmyrat NYYAZOW; Democratic Party of Turkmenistan); elected to redefined post of Chairman of the Supreme Soviet on January 19, 1990; unopposed in popular election to the new ...

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