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Republic of TurkeyTürkiye Cumhuriyeti
Political Status: Independent republic established in 1923; parliamentary democracy since 1946, save for military interregna from May 1960 to October 1961 and September 1980 to November 1983; present constitution approved by referendum of November 7, 1982.
Area: 300,948 sq. mi. (779,452 sq. km).
Population: 75,723,282 (2014E—UN); 81,619,392 (2014E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2007E): ANKARA (3,641,931), İstanbul (10,291,102), İzmir (2,651,568), Bursa (1,504,817), Adana (1,294,460), Gaziantep (1,136,281), Konya (932,589).
Official Language: Turkish. A 1982 law banning the use of the Kurdish language was rescinded in early 1991.
Monetary Unit: Turkish Lira (Türk Lirası—TL) (market rate October 1, 2014: 2.28 Turkish New Liras = $1US).
President of the Republic: Recep Tayyip ERDOĞAN (Justice and Development Party); elected in presidential elections on August 10, 2014, and inaugurated on August 28, succeeding Abdullah ...